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NeuroMedical-Surgical Nursing-7th edition

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Destruction of UMN = _______ paralysis; Destruction of LMN = _______ paralysis
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UMN = initial paralysis with partial recovery days/weeks later; LMN = permanent paralysis
How are herniated disks treated?
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Rest, PT, anti-inflammatory, and surgery.
UMN or LMN? Hypotonia, flaccid paralysis, flaccid paresis, soft, flabby, flat muscle tone. Hyporeflexia or Areflexia.
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LMN
UMN or LMN? Slight muscular atrophy
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UMN
_______ innervates the diaphragm and respiration. Any injury above it will impact breathing.
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C4
Who are more likely to get herniated disks?
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Men
What are signs and symptoms of a herniated disk?
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Pain, numbness/tingling, decreased movement and reflexes (blocks motor pathway).
A herniated disk at the lower levels of the lumbar spine will result in...
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sensory and motor impairment
The nucleus purposes in the middle of the disk leaks out thru the annulus fibrosus capsule...
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herniated disk
Lumbar injuries result in _______.
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paraplegia
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Low cervical spinal cord injuries impact the _______.
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arms and legs
UMN or LMN? Hypertonia, spastic paralysis, spastic paresis, firm and tense muscles, hyperreflexia, abnormal reflexes.
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UMN
UMN or LMN? Terminates in the effector organ (muscle)
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LMN
What structures make up a reflex arc?
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receptor, afferent sensory neuron, lower efferent neuron, effector muscle/gland.
Where are herniated disks most likely to occur?
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Lumbar and cervical regions 4,5,6,7: L4-L5; L5-S1; C5-C6; C6-C7
Cervical injuries can result in _______.
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tetraplegia
If a person is paraplegic they will have impaired movement of their _______.
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legs
All spinal cord traumas are a _______ motor neuron injury.
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upper
UMN or LMN? Fasciculations
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LMN
UMN or LMN? Muscles cannot respond to stimulus. No communication with other motor neurons.
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LMN
UMN or LMN? Originates in contralateral motor cortex and cranial nerves...
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UMN
  
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