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NeuroMedical-Surgical Nursing-7th edition

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_______ involve fragments that break from a thrombus formed outside the brain or in the heart, aorta or common carotid.
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Embolic Stroke
A _______ stroke can be caused by hypertension, aneurysms, vascular malformations and illicit drug use.
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Hemorrhagic Stroke
_______ is an immediate concern in patients with hemorrhagic stroke.
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Increased ICP
The _______ artery is located in the medial aspect of the frontal and parietal lobes.
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anterior cerebral artery
An occlusion of the anterior cerebral artery would result in...
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Hemiplegia on the contralateral side of the body; greater in the lower than the upper extremities.
The _______ artery is located in the medial aspect of the temporal, occipital lobes and in the cerebellum.
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Posterior cerebral artery
An occlusion of the posterior cerebral artery would result in...
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visual loss, sensory loss, contralateral hemiplegia, hearing, speech, memory and balance losses.
A child has a single midline orbit and eye with a protruding nose like appendage above the orbit...this is called...
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Cyclopia
Cyclopia is a/an _______ defect.
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anterior midline
_______ is caused by direct stimulation of the vomiting center by neurological lesions on the brain stem or GI obstructions.
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Projectile Vomiting
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A diffuse sympathetic discharge causes _______, _______ and _______ that accompanies vomiting.
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tachycardia; tachypnea; sweating
Acute confusional states are characterized by...
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abrupt onset; illusions, hallucinations, delirium; decreased alertness and function (under activity); can be flushed with tachycardia, diaphoretic; typically lasts 2-3 days.
What are some causes of an acute confusional state?
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Drugs, metabolic disorders, febrile illness, systemic disease (CHF), head injury, anesthesia, focal cerebral lesions.
_______ is a progressive failure of cerebral functions that is not caused by an impaired LOC.
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Dementia
What are some causes of dementia?
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Degeneration, compression; atherosclerosis; trauma; Alzheimer's; Huntington's; HIV; Creutzfeldt-Jacobs.
What are the 2 most common causes of dementia?
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Vascular abnormalities; Alzheimer's
Vascular causes dementia results from _______. The risk factors are:
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cerebral infarctions; Risk: obesity, atherosclerosis, chronic inflammation, hyper coagulability.
State o Happy Ignorance refers to _______ dementia.
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Vascular
Vascular = destruction of _______ term memory; Alzheimer's = destruction of _______ term memory.
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Vascular = no short term memory; Alzheimer's = no short and long term memory
Death in Alzheimer's patients is usually due to _______.
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Infection (like pneumonia). Not Alzheimer's.
Alzheimer's is a disease with _______ progression and has a high comorbidity with _______.
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slow progression; increased incidence of depression
  
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