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Cardiac PathoMedical-Surgical Nursing-7th edition

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What disease? Bacteria gets in the blood thru dental work or IV use. Bacteria gets stuck in a fibrin clot and the body cannot get to it to eliminate it. Common causes: s. aureus and s. viridans. Vegetation.
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Infectious Endocarditis
How does an increased BP cause problems?
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Causes damage to endothelial cells of blood vessels; capillaries, leak, causing edema; and proteins leak out, taking H20 with it (which decreases BP).
What disease? Murmur, (+) blood culture, Janeway's lesions, Osler's nodes, splinter hemorrhages and petechiae...
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Infective Endocarditis
What are common causes of infective Endocarditis?
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s. aureus and s. viridians
What parts of the heart get infected by Infective Endocarditis?
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Mitral and aortic valves, almost exclusively on the left side of the heart.
What are the effects of Peripheral Vascular Disease?
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Sets patients up for infection; the feet become calloused and can easily crack. The cracks become portals of entry for bacteria. This makes a small cut a serious problem, possibly resulting in amputations.
What are causes of aortic insufficiency?
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Rheumatic heart disease, atherosclerosis, endocarditis, often idiopathic.
What are factors linked to essential hypertension?
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Family history, hyperlipidemia, African American, diabetes, obesity, aging, stress, excessive smoking, alcohol ingestion.
What is secondary hypertension?
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Hypertension cases related to renal and endocrine disorders.
Aneurysms cause _______ which increases the risk of _______.
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turbulent flow; increased risk of endothelial damage and rupture (dissection)
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At the end of systole, there is approximately _______ mL of blood in the heart.
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50 mL (called end-systolic volume) Note: not all blood is ejected.
What are 7 common characteristics of stable cardiac ischemia?
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transient; reversible and predictable; heaviness/pressure in chest; pain that radiates to jaw, arm, left shoulder; pallor; diaphoresis; rest and nitroglycerin relieves symptoms. *Symptoms may vary.
How does malignant hypertension affect: Eyes? Brain? Heart? Kidney?
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Eyes: blurred vision; Brain: changes in mental status, n/v, headache, numbness, seizure; Heart: chest pain, signs and symptoms of heart failure; Kidney: oliguria.
What is insufficiency/ regurgitation?
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Heart valves cannot close fully; valves are loose, dilated and deformed; blood flows retrograde (backward); causes dilation of chamber before the valve.
Chronic venous insufficiency results from a prolonged condition of _______ venous circulation.
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incompetent (*occurs in a period of months to years)
How does a PE lead to RHF?
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It increases the resistance the heart has to work against to push blood past the clot causing it to hypertrophy and eventually leads to HF.
What causes mitral insufficiency/regurgitation?
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Rheumatic heart disease; atherosclerosis; Marfan's; mitral valve prolapse; endocarditis.
What two hormones are useful in detecting heart failure?
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ANP: atrial natriuretic peptide; and BNP: brain natriuretic peptide. Increased levels can be indicative of heart failure.
How does the atrium of the heart help regulate BP?
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ANP is released in response to fluid overload in the kidneys; stimulates kidneys to increase the glomerular filtration rate, increase the elimination of Na+ and H20; also causes vasodilation and inhibits renin and aldosterone secretions.
ACE inhibitors work better in _______.
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Caucasians
  
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