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Cardiac PathoMedical-Surgical Nursing-7th edition

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Page 13
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Patients with atrial flutter or fibrillation are at increased risk for...
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pulmonary embolisms and stroke.
What is valvular stenosis?
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The heart valves cannot fully open due to the thick leafs of the valves (narrowing); causes a backflow preceding the diseased valve.
What are the primary, immediate concerns with malignant hypertension?
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Profound cerebral edema, hemorrhagic stroke, ischemia of brain tissue.
What happens when myocardial contractility is increased due to heart failure?
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Increases O2 demands of the heart; increases afterload because of arterial constriction, making it work even harder; decreased blood flow to kidneys, activating renin-angiotensin system causing fluid retention.
ST elevation = _______ and ST depression = _______
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ST elevation = heart attack and ST depression = injury, ischemia
The clinical manifestations of CAD are ultimately due to _______.
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Ischemia; the vessels aren't able to dilate and provide more blood to the heart when it is needed.
Valvular heart disease is acquired or congenital?
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Both
What is bacterial endocarditis?
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The inner linings of the heart is infected with bacteria. Usual suspects: damage from strep related to rheumatic heart disease.
What are the risk factors for atherosclerosis?
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Family history, smoking, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, gender, obesity, sedentary, lower estrogen, alcohol, diabetes, C reactive protein (chronic inflammation).
Describe the pathologic progression of atherosclerosis?
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Endothelium damage; fatty streak formation; fibrous plaque formation; complicated lesion; emboli.
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What causes pericarditis?
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Usually idiopathic; can be caused by systemic infections, cancers, trauma to the chest.
SV/End Diastolic Volume =
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Ejection Fraction (EF)
How does the body compensate for heart failure?
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The muscle fibers lengthen to increase the volume in the heart chambers to achieve better cardiac output. As a result, the sarcomeres lose contractility (lose elasticity). Works for only a short time.
The peak pressure against the arteries at the time immediately follow blood ejection...
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Systole
Normal = _______, Prehypertensive = _______, Stage 1 = _______, and Stage 2 = _______
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Normal = less than 120/80, Prehypertensive = 120-139/80-89, Stage 1 = 140-159/ 90-99, and Stage 2 = over 160/100
What are the 3 main coronary arteries and what parts of the heart do they supply?
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Left Anterior Descending (LAD): supplies the left ventricle. Left Circumflex: oxygenates back left-side of the heart. Right Coronary Artery: supplies all blood to the right side of the heart and to the left side it supplies a good amount.
Left heart failure is a _______ dysfunction.
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diastolic
What helps to determine the timeline of a heart attack?
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CK-MB, LDH and troponin 1 are released when the heart is damaged. They rise at different times, also take a couple hours to elevate. Taking labs frequently measures the rise and peak of those enzymes.
In unstable angina _______ and _______ are taken. Ischemia will cause _______.
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EKG and enzymes are performed; ST depression
What is collateral circulation?
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Hearts response to diminished blood supply. Heart naturally develops collateral vessels to get oxygen to parts of the heart that are occluded.
What is contractility?
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Determined by stretching of the myocardium and sympathetic activation (tone) of the ventricles. Starling's Law/rubber band
  
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