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Cardiac PathoMedical-Surgical Nursing-7th edition

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What are the symptoms of biventricular failure?
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Fatigue, chest pain, restlessness, anxiety, hypotension, decrease urine output, and cachexia. Related to impaired cardiac function and decreased tissue perfusion.
What specific electrolytes impact cardiac cell excitability?
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Potassium, sodium, magnesium (PMS)
Why are smokers more at risk for heart attacks?
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Smokers have an increased number of clots in addition to poor perfusion and narrowed vessels.
What are the vasoconstricting factors regulated by the endothelium?
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Thromboxane A and Endothelin
How is aortic stenosis treated?
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Valvuloplasty or valve replacement.
A true aneurysm involves...
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the tunica intima, tunic media and adventitia.
Diastolic dysfunction causes the heart to not have enough blood to pump out, decreasing _______. It does not impact _______.
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cardiac output; ejection fraction
What is sinus tachycardia?
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SA node is firing too quickly, shortens cardiac filling time, regular intervals. Can be normal, like in response to exercise.
What is the pathology of hypertension?
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Sustained increase in peripheral arterial resistance and/or increase in circulating volume.
Atherosclerosis of peripheral arteries; predominantly the aorta, iliac, femoral, carotid and popliteal...
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Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD)
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What can cause hypercoagulability?
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Increased risk of DVT; SE of meds; anything that causes polycythemia like: smoking, oral contraceptives, diabetes, cancer, chemo, chronic infection, long-bone fracture, surgery, etc.
What are signs and symptoms of decreased tissue perfusion?
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Confusion, angina, palpitations, fatigue, and decreased urine output (oliguria).
What are common causes of orthostatic hypotension?
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Often caused by alpha blockers (used to treat BPH).
What is an ST elevated MI? How does it differ from NSTEMI?
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The MI has impacted several layers of muscle of the heart causing an ST elevation on an EKG. Less serious/ damage than NSTEMI.
How does hypercholesterolemia contribute to CAD?
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Cholesterol builds up on the vessels walls causing narrowing. Increases vascular resistance and increases work load of heart.
If the narrowing of vessels is 50% or greater, blood flow is affected enough to...
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Impact cell metabolism in situations of increased myocardial oxygen demand.
What is Virchow's Triad?
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Related to DVTs; venous stasis, endothelial injury, hypercoagulability.
BP: Normal = _______, Prehypertension = _______, Stage 1 hypertension = _______, Stage 2 hypertension = _______.
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Normal = less than 120/80, Prehypertension = 120-139/80-89, Stage 1 = 140-159/90-99, Stage 2 = over 160/100 or more
What is orthostatic hypotension?
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A change in BP (decreased) by: 20 systolic and 10 diastolic, upon change of position.
Only _______ acts only on beta, receptors, all other cardioselective beta-blockers impact _______ to some extent.
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Atenolol (Tenormin); bronchoconstriction
Unstable angina is a manifestation of _______.
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Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) (heart attack)
  
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