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Burns and Burn TreatmentMedical-Surgical Nursing-7th edition

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How are chemical burns initially treated?
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Remove chemical from skin (may scrub with soft brush to remove alkaline agent); Remove clothing; and Water lavage.
What changes to K+ occur as a result of burns?
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Injured cells and hemolyzed RBCs release K+ into extracellular spaces leading to hyperkalemia. Then, K+ shifts and decreases K+ leading to hypokalemia.
Tissue destruction related to a chemical burn can occur up to _______ hours after the initial injury.
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72 hours
How can the liver or kidneys be damaged from an external chemical burn?
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The substance can be absorbed into the circulation and cause damage as it's detoxified or excreted.
What are the 2 commonly used guides to determine the extent of burns?
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Lund-Browder Chart (most accurate) and Rule of 9's (good for initial adult assessment).
_______ is an electrolyte imbalance that can occur following successful fluid replacement due to improper tube feedings of burn patients.
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Acute phase (hypernatremia)
A good time for exercise of a burn patient is during _______.
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wound cleaning
Depth? Involves Dermis. Moist, pink, painful, blisters, blanches. 10-21 days healing time.
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Deep partial-thickness
What should staff wear when caring for patients with open burn wounds?
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Disposable hats, masks, gown, and gloves.
Chemical burns result from tissue injury caused by...
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acids, alkalis, and organic compounds.
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Depth? Requires skin grafting...
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Full thickness
What wound care method is used for facial burn?
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Open method (topical ointment only).
How is corneal burns treated?
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Antibiotic ointment (*note patient may be frightened by periorbital edema).
How should hands and arms be positioned for burn patients?
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Extended and elevated on pillows or slings to prevent contractures.
How are small thermal burns initially treated?
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Cover with clean, cool tap water (dampened towel).
What are the 3 major types of inhalation injuries?
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CO poisoning, injury above glottis, and injury below glottis.
What are clues a patient has an inhalation injury above the glottis?
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Facial burns, soot around the mouth/nose, singed nose hair, hoarseness, painful swallowing, dark nasal/oral membranes, and stridor.
Inhalation injury _______ the glottis causes tracheal or bronchial constriction and alveolar damage.
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below
What are the clinical manifestations seen during the emergent phase of burns?
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Shock (pain and hypovolemia), blisters, shivering, and altered mental status.
What drugs are commonly used in the treatment of burn patients?
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Morphine (increased doses, 10 mg not uncommon), deluded, haloperidol, Ativan, versed, tetanus shot, sulfamylon, and silvadene.
  
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