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Cardiopulmonary BasicsMedical-Surgical Nursing-7th edition

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CHF: Crackles, SOA, frothy pink sputum = _______ side. Peripheral edema, JVD, hepatomegaly, weight gain = _______ side.
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Left = SOA, crackles, cough, etc. Right = peripheral edema, weight increase, etc.
What conditions are medications like dopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine, Phenylephrine and vasopressin used to treat?
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Hypotension related to acute heart failure or shock.
If a patient is overdosed on Diltiazem, what is the antidote?
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IV calcium (it's a calcium channel blocker)
How is cardiogenic shock typically treated?
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Dopamine for vasoconstriction, Dobutamine for increased contractility ((+) inotrope), and intraaortic balloon pump.
_______ is the drug of choice to lower BP in hypertensive emergencies.
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Nitroprusside
Cool and pale or mottled extremities are a sign of increased _______.
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afterload
What part of oxygenation is impacted by anemia?
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Decreased oxygen carrying capacity and decreased hemoglobin is unable to transport required oxygen.
The major inspiratory muscle of respiration is the _______.
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diaphragm
Alveoli transfer oxygen and carbon dioxide to and from the blood through _______.
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the alveolar capillary membrane
The lungs transfer oxygen from the atmosphere to the _______; where oxygen is exchanged for carbon dioxide.
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alveoli
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_______ have the highest mortality rate from asthma.
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African American females
What are some causes of hyperventilation?
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Anxiety, infections, drugs, acid-base imbalances, hypoxia from pulmonary embolus or shock, and fever.
Clients with pulmonary edema, pulmonary infiltrates or a pulmonary effusion have a thickened alveolar capillary membrane resulting in...
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slow diffusion (exchange of O2 & CO2) and decreases oxygen to tissues.
What are signs and symptoms of a tension pneumothorax?
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Pain, dyspnea, increased heart rate, increased respiratory rate, and raised BP.
What things could cause a decreased inspired oxygen concentration?
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Decreased environmental oxygen (like high altitudes), drug overdoses, and upper or lower airway obstruction.
The _______ reflects changes in large airway sizes and is an excellent predictor of overall airway resistance in the client with asthma.
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Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR)
_______ suctioning is used when the client is able to cough effectively but unable to clear secretions.
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Oropharyngeal or Nasopharyngeal
What is the appropriate negative pressure when suctioning?
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120-150 mmHg
Humidification is necessary for clients receiving oxygen therapy at greater than _______.
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4 L/min
Chest physiotherapy is recommended for clients who produce greater than _______ of sputum per day or have atelectasis.
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30 mL
What conditions affect chest wall movement?
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Pregnancy, obesity, musculoskeletal abnormalities (kyphosis, scoliosis, pectus excavatum), trauma, increased doses of opioids, neuromuscular disease like myasthenia gravis, Guillain-Barre, poliomyelitis, CNS alterations, and chronic disease.
  
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