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Cardiopulmonary BasicsMedical-Surgical Nursing-7th edition

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What should be monitored for a patient on norepinephrine?
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Headache, hypertension, dysrhythmias.
_______ is a calcium channel blocker that is selective for vascular smooth muscle. It triggers vasodilation and decreases BP.
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Nicardipine
Metoprolol, Labetalol, Carvedilol and Diltiazem should not be given to patients who have...
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2nd or 3rd degree heart block and no pacemaker.
Dopamine in doses of: 2.5 mcg causes _______, 5 mcg _______, and 15 mcg _______.
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2.5 - dilates the renal arteries; 5 - systemic vasodilation smooth muscle; 15 - ensures blood flow to brain and heart, but compromises distal extremity blood flow.
How is hypertrophic cardiomyopathy typically treated?
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Beta-blockers and maybe antidysrhythmic calcium channel blocker.
What should be monitored for a patient on dopamine?
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Urine output (ensure perfusion) and heart rate for tachycardia.
What is cardiogenic shock?
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Loss of 45% or more of the heart muscle. Signs and symptoms: decreased BP (systolic less than 90 or 30 mm change).
This test is NOT a valuable tool for evaluation of cardiac response in women due to increase in false positives.
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ECG exercise stress test.
What are common MI symptoms in women?
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Angina, fatigue, indigestion, vasospasm, SOA, and back/jaw pain.
What are signs and symptoms of MI?
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Crushing, squeezing, or stabbing chest pain; Left-side, can be felt in back, left arm, neck, jaws, teeth, and epigastric area. *Occurs at rest and not relieved easily.
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MI results from a sudden _______ in coronary blood flow or an _______ in myocardial oxygen demand without adequate coronary perfusion.
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decrease in blood glow; increase in O2 demand
...the amount of blood ejected from the left ventricle with each contraction.
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Stroke volume
What physiological factors affect stroke volume?
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Preload (blood in the LV at the end of diastole), afterload (resistance to LV ejection) and myocardial contractility.
What is the Cardiac Index (CI) and what is the normal range?
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A more precise measure of cardiac output; takes into account tissue perfusion and the client's body surface area (BSA). Normal = 2.5-4.0 L/min per m2.
What was the most significant influence regarding competition in health care costs?
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Prospective Payment System
Clients on ACE inhibitors are at risk for _______.
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Hyperkalemia
Clients on diuretic therapy are at risk for _______.
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Hypokalemia
Cardiopulmonary physiology involves delivery of deoxygenated blood to the _______ side of the heart and to the pulmonary circulation. Oxygenated blood goes from the lungs to the _______ side of the heart and tissues.
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deoxygenated = Right side; oxygenated = Left side
pH of pleural fluid from tracheobronchial tree is generally _______.
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greater than 6
The process of moving gases into and out of the lungs...
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ventilation
_______ relates to the ability of the cardiovascular system to pump oxygenated blood to the tissues and return deoxygenated blood to the lungs.
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Perfusion
  
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