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Elimination AlterationsMedical-Surgical Nursing-7th edition

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Question Answer
A soapsuds enema uses _______ soap. A high enema cleanses _______ and a low enema cleanses _______.
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pure castile soap; high = whole colon; low = rectum and sigmoid
Who should not be encouraged to use the Valsalva maneuver?
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Clients with cardiovascular disease, glaucoma, increased intracranial pressure, and/or a new surgical wound. *Can cause dysrhythmias and increase BP.
True or False? In a supine position it is impossible to contract the muscles used for defecation.
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True. This is why we should raise the head of the bed of a bed-ridden patient.
What causes paralytic ileus and how long does it last?
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Any surgery that involves direct manipulation of the bowel. Lasts 24-48 hours typically.
Which anesthetic agents (general) causes an increased risk of constipation?
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General and/or inhaled. *Not local or regional.
True or False? Food intolerance is the same thing as an allergy.
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FALSE
Which clients are most at risk for fecal impactions?
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Those that are debilitated, confused or unconscious.
Chronic use of laxatives or cathartics can lead to what problems?
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Decreased muscle tone and stimulus response of large intestine. Serious diarrhea which leads to dehydration and electrolyte depletion. Mineral oil lessens fat soluble vitamin absorption. Decreases efficacy of other meds.
Alterations in elimination are often an early sign/symptom of problems in the _______ system.
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Gastrointestinal
How many stool specimens are required for a (+) C-diff diagnosis?
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2-3 (*tested with ELISA)
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An ileostomy results in stools that are _______.
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liquid and frequent
A colostomy of the ascending colon results in _______ stools.
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liquid and frequent
A colostomy of the transverse colon results in _______ stools.
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more solid and formed
A colostomy of the sigmoid colon results in _______ stool.
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pretty much normal
A _______ colostomy is usually performed in an emergency and is usually located in the _______ colon.
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loop = transverse (has 2 openings thru one stoma)
The _______ colostomy consists of one stoma formed from the proximal end of the bowel with the distal portion of the GI tract removed or sewn closed.
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end colostomy (Harmann's pouch)
A _______ colostomy is usually the end result of treating colorectal cancer of diverticulitis.
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end colostomy
In a _______ colostomy, the bowel is surgically severed and the 2 ends are brought out onto the abdomen. Has two stomas; proximal one is functioning.
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Double Barrel
...a surgical procedure that is used in clients who need to have a colectomy for treatment of ulcerative colitis or familial polyps. The colon is removed.
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Ileoanal Pouch Anastomosis (*ileum is connected to anus so client is still continent)
... ileostomy created using the small intestine, detubularizing it's cylindrical shape and creating a spherical reservoir. Has a continent stoma...
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Kock Continent Ileostomy (*treats colitis)
Macedo-Malone Antegrade Continence Enemas (MACE) are used in people with...
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Neuropathic or structural abnormalities of the sphincter
  
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