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Kidney Failure and DialysisMedical-Surgical Nursing-7th edition

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The most important non-drug managements for hypertension are?
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Fluid removal, restriction of sodium and fluid in the diet.
Which of these foods should be avoided by a patient with chronic kidney disease because of the vitamin K content? Chocolate, apples, cereal or strawberries?
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Chocolate
Which of these foods should be avoided by a patient with chronic kidney disease because of the vitamin K content? Rice, peanut butter, turkey or blueberries?
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Peanut butter
Which of these foods should be avoided by a patient with chronic kidney disease because of the vitamin K content? Bread, grapes, ham, or tomatoes?
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Tomatoes
Which of these foods should be avoided by a patient with chronic kidney disease because of the vitamin K content? Oranges, crackers, pears, or raisins?
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Raisins
What are the major characteristics of acute renal failure?
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Oliguria, increased creatinine, and increased BUN.
How is hyperkalemia associated with kidney disease or kidney failure treated?
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Potassium restriction to less than 40 milliequivalents a day, Kayexalate, Lasix if the kidney disease is in the early stages, D50 and insulin if the hyperkalemia is acute, or dialysis.
Arterivenous fistulas usually anastomose the ________ artery to the ________ vein.
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Radial or ulnar artery to the cephalic vein.
When glomerular filtration rate is less than _________, phosphorus excretion is impaired.
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30 to 50 mL. At this point, the patient will develop hypocalcemia.
How does continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration (CVVHDF) work?
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Through convection, the removal of large volumes of fluid from areas of high pressure to low pressure and diffusion (the movement of molecules from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration). This form of dialysis requires a dialysate and fluid replacement.
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What is the goal of continuous venovenous hemodialysis (CVVHD)?
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Fluid removal and a high level of solute removal.
What is the goal of continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration (CVVHDF)?
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Maximal fluid and solute removal
How does continuous venovenous hemodialysis (CVVHD) work?
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Through diffusion (the movement of molecules from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration). This form of dialysis requires a dialysate to create a concentration gradient.
This type of CRRT is used for hemodynamically unstable, volume overloaded patients with azotemia, uremia, acidosis, or electrolyte problems that also require total parenteral nutrition?.
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Continuous venovenous hemodialysis (CVVHD)
This type of CRRT is used for patients with severe azotemia, fluid and electrolyte disturbances and hemodynamic instability?
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Continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration (CVVHDF)
What is the goal of continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH)?
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Fluid volume management, moderate solute removal.
How does uremia increase the risk of bleeding with chronic kidney disease?
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It impairs platelet aggregation
What antihypertensive drugs are most commonly used with patients who have chronic kidney disease?
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Diuretics (Lasix), beta-blockers (Lopressor), calcium channel blockers (Procardia), ACE inhibitors (Capoten), and ARBs (Cozaar).
Vital signs should be monitored every ________ while hemodialysis treatment is occurring.
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30 to 60 minutes
The development of an S4 gallop in a patient with chronic kidney disease is indicative of?.
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Decreased cardiac wall compliance and hypertension
What type of renal failure is caused by Lupus, Acture Tubular Necrosis, Acute Glomerulonephritis, or toxemia? Prerenal, Intrarenal or Postrenal?
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Intrarenal
  
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