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Kidney Failure and DialysisMedical-Surgical Nursing-7th edition

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Question Answer
________ is the force that moves urea, creatinine, uric acid and electrolytes from the blood into dialysate during peritoneal dialysis.
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Diffusion (movement from areas of greater concentration to lesser concentration).
__________, provided by glucose, is the force that pulls excess fluid from the blood during peritoneal dialysis.
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Osmosis (movement from areas of lesser concentration to greater concentration).
Temporary catheters in the internal jugular or subclavian vein can be left in place for _______ week(s).
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1-3 weeks
Temporary catheters in the femoral vein can be left in place for _______ week(s).
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1 week
Elevations of serum levels of ______ and _______ is indicative of kidney failure.
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Urea nitrogen and creatinine
How is kidney failure staged?
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On the basis of glomerular filtration rate
Polystyrene sulfonate/Kayexalate should never be given to a patient with __________, even if their potassium levels are severely elevated.
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Paralytic ileus. If taken, the patient could suffer from bowel necrosis.
What findings in urine suggest a postrenal cause of acute renal failure?
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Hematuria, pyuria, and crystals.
For patients with renal failure, their energy should primarily come from ______ and _______ to prevent ketosis.
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Carbohydrates and protein
What is the ideal amount of daily protein intake for a patient with renal failure?
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30 to 35 kilocalories per kilogram of body weight.
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What are the two best indicators of a patient's fluid volume status when they have acute renal failure?
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Daily weights and close monitoring of the patient's intake and output.
What are the findings associated with uremic encephalopathy?
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Confusion, difficulty concentrating, seizures and later, coma.
What findings in urine suggest glomerulonephritis?
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Proteinuria and hematuria
What is a normal glomerular filtration rate?
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125 to 150 mL per minute per 1.73 meters squared.
What is BUN blunting?
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Impaired thinking processes related to increased blood urea nitrogen.
Pallor related to anemia is a yellow-brown or gray color in patients with chronic kidney disease due to ___________.
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The build-up of urochrome, a urinary pigment.
What type of renal failure is caused by hemoglobin released from hemolized red blood cells from a blood transfusion reaction? Prerenal, Intrarenal or Postrenal?
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Intrarenal
What intervention is necessary for a patient with a femoral catheter for dialysis to prevent vessel trauma?
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Complete bedrest
What are late signs of nerve atrophy and demeylination related to chronic kidney disease?
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Impaired motor function, changes in gait and changes in fine motor movement.
How is acute hyperkalemia typically treated in a patient with kidney disease?
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IV glucose and insulin, Kayexalate, or IV 10% calcium gluconate
What assessments should be performed prior to a hemodialysis session?
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Fluid status baseline, including weight, blood pressure, staging of edema and heart sounds. Condition of the access site. Temperature. Skin condition.
  
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