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Kidney Failure and DialysisMedical-Surgical Nursing-7th edition

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What assessments should be performed prior to a hemodialysis session?
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Fluid status baseline, including weight, blood pressure, staging of edema and heart sounds. Condition of the access site. Temperature. Skin condition.
Ideally, no more than ______ kg should be gained between hemodialysis treatment to prevent a hypotensive event.
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1.0 to 1.5 kg
What type of renal failure is caused by myoglobin released from muscle cells, as with a crush injury? Prerenal, Intrarenal or Postrenal?
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Intrarenal
_________ is a sensitive indicator of chronic kidney disease related to diabetes, glomerular disease and hypertension.
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Albumin
What is required of a patient prior to surgery for a peritoneal dialysis catheter placement?
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They must empty their bowel and bladder, a pre-procedural weight must be obtained, and they need to sign the consent form.
What sensation will a patient feel during a peritoneal dialysis catheter placement that signals that the catheter is in place?
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The urge to defecate.
________ is a progressive accumulation of nitrogenous waste products such as urea nitrogen, creatinine, ammonia and phosphorus.
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Azotemia
________ is the term for when renal function declines to the extent that multiple body systems are impacted by the build-up of waste products.
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Uremia
What type of renal failure is caused by bladder or prostate cancer? Prerenal, Intrarenal or Postrenal?
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Postrenal
What type of renal failure is caused by kidney stones? Prerenal, Intrarenal or Postrenal?
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Postrenal
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When should a patient take their phosphate binders and what is the most common side effect associated with them?
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They should be taken with each meal because phosphate is absorbed within 1 hour of eating. It most commonly causes constipation.
________ is the presence of arteriovenous nicking and cotton wool hemorrhages with exudates upon fundoscopic examination.
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Hypertensive retinopathy
What can cause halitosis, a metallic taste and mouth ulcers in patients with chronic kidney disease?
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Urea bacteria in the mouth breaking down into ammonia
What can you do if a patient experiences abdominal pain during peritoneal dialysis?
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Decrease the infusion rate
________ is a complication of chronic kidney disease caused by parathyroid hormone suppression from increased dietary calcium, increased dietary vitamin D or diabetes mellitus.
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Osteomalacia (demineralization of bone)
Why should a patient with chronic kidney disease not take Maalox or Mylanta?
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Maalox and Mylanta have magnesium which is dependent on the kidneys for excretion. The inability of the kidneys to remove magnesium leads to hypermagnesium.
Why should a patient with chronic kidney disease not take Alu-cap, Amphojel, Basajel or AlternaGel?
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They all have aluminum which can cause dementia as the levels become toxic in a patient with kidney disease.
______ is the leading cause of death in patients with end stage renal disease.
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Cardiovascular disease
How are bony changes related to chronic kidney disease prevented?
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Dietary management (low phosphorus, high calcium diet), phosphate binders, and calcium salts.
How is adequacy of nutrition determined in a patient with chronic kidney disease?
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Serum albumin levels
In relation to cardiac output, what percentage of blood is filtered through the nephrons per minute normally?
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20 to 25 %
  
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