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Medication Administration BasicsMedical-Surgical Nursing-7th edition

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Why is the efficacy of medications in patients with CHF delayed or altered?
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They have impaired circulation which impairs medication delivery to the site of action.
What are guidelines for safe narcotic administration and control?
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Keep narcotics locked. Count frequently. Report discrepancies immediately. Use a special inventory record. Use record to document name, date, time, name of med, dose and signature. Witness if only given partial dose. Flush waste portions of tablets
What things should be done when starting an IV?
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Make sure it is in the vein. Make sure the IV is anchored. Make sure the pump is set properly. Look for normal urine output (25-30 mL/hr). Review urine specific gravity.
Where does most biotransformation occur?
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The liver.
Gaseous and volatile compounds like nitrous oxide and alcohol exit the body thru the _______.
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lungs
How can a post operative patient release anesthetic gases more rapidly?
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Through deep breathing and coughing. *Exits via lungs.
The _______ excrete lipid soluble medications.
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exocrine glands (*can cause skin irritation)
Factors that increase peristalsis _______ medication excretion through the feces; decreasing it's effect.
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accelerate
Why are older adults more at risk for adverse affects like medication toxicity when given protein bound drugs?
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They have less albumin, leaving more free medication.
Inactivity and improper diet can _______ a medications effects.
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prolong because it decreases peristalsis
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The _______ are the main organs for medication excretion.
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kidneys
True or False? If kidneys cannot adequately excrete a medication, the dose should be reduced.
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TRUE
What promotes proper elimination of medications for the average adult?
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Consuming at least 50 mL/kg of water a day.
The _______ is the expected or predictable physiological response a medication causes.
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therapeutic effect
_______ develop after prolonged intake of a medication or when a med accumulates in the blood because of impaired metabolism or excretion.
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Toxic effects
What is the difference between side effects and adverse effects?
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SE: predictable and often unavoidable; AE: unintended, undesired, unpredictable severe response.
_______ reverses the effects of opioid toxicity.
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Narcan
An unpredictable effect in which the client over reacts or under reacts to a medication. A reaction different than the norm...
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idiosyncratic reaction
When does the highest serum concentration of medication usually occur?
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Just before the body absorbs the last of the medication.
When is a trough blood level usually drawn?
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30 minutes before administration of the next dose.
What teaching should a nurse share regarding sublingual medications?
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Don't swallow medications, it won't have the same effect. No drinks until dissolved.
  
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