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Musculoskeletal System and CareMedical-Surgical Nursing-7th edition

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How is metabolism impacted in an immobilized patient that has active wound healing?
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They have an increased basal metabolism rate because of increased cellular oxygen requirements.
A deficiency in ________ leads to a negative nitrogen balance in immobile patients.
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Proteins and calories. This is the primary mechanism of muscle mass loss.
What calcium changes occur from immobility?
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Calcium leeches from the bone and isn't resorbed, leading to hypercalcemia.
What impairments to GI function occur from immobility?
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Constipation, pseudodiarrhea from fecal impaction, and decreased appetite.
What causes pseudodiarrhea and what happens if it is left untreated?
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Constipation leads to fecal impaction which causes liquid stool to pass around the area of impaction. This leads to a bowel obstruction, distention and increased pressure that decreases intestinal function. This leads to dehydration and fluid and electrolyte imbalances.
What are common respiratory changes that occur due to immobility?
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Atelectasis and hypostatic pneumonia
What are the three major cardiovascular complications associated with immobility?
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Orthostatic hypotension, increased cardiac workload and thrombus formation.
Orthostatic hypotension is a complication of immobility. What is it?
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An increase of the heart rate of more than 15% and a drop of more than 15 mm Hg systolic or 10 mm diastolic from the baseline blood pressure as a result of position changes.
As immobilization increase, what happens to cardiac output, cardiac efficiency, and cardiac workload?
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Cardiac output decreases, cardiac efficiency decreases and cardiac workload increases.
What is the primary intervention for an immobilized patient to decrease the cardiac workload?
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Discourage the Valsalva maneuver?.this can lead to sudden cardiac death.
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What type of support surface is used for treatment and prevention of pulmonary complications associated with immobility?
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Lateral rotation/passive motion mattresses
______ are white, shiny flexible bands of fibrous tissue binding joints together and connecting bones and cartilages. Sometimes they serve in a protective function as well.
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Ligaments
_______ are white, glistening fibrous bands of tissue that connect muscle to bone. They are strong, flexible and inelastic.
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Tendons
_______ is nonvascular, supportive connective tissue located chiefly in the joints and thorax, trachea, larynx, nose and ear.
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Cartilage
Permanent cartilage is unossified except for the cartilage?
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In older adults or in disease conditions like osteoarthritis
In ______ tension, increased muscle contraction causes muscle shortening resulting in movement. An example is the use of an overhead trapeze to pull oneself up in bed.
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Concentric
________ tension helps control the speed and direction of movement. An example is slowly lowering oneself in the bath.
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Eccentric. It lengthens muscle.
Voluntary muscle movement is a combination of _______ and ________ contractions.
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Isotonic and Isometric
________ contraction causes an increase in muscle tension or muscle work, but no shortening or active movement of the muscle. An example would be consciously tightening your leg muscle.
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Isometric.
Concentric and eccentric muscle actions are required for movement and referred to as...
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Dynamic or isotonic contraction
Muscles of the lower extremities, trunk, neck and back are concerned primarily with the maintenance of _________.
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Posture
  
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