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Respiratory failure - artificial airwaysMedical-Surgical Nursing-7th edition

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Type of ventilation? Pressure is applied only during expiration...
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Positive End - Expiratory Pressure (PEEP)
Type of ventilation? Used when a patient has no drive to breathe. No work of breathing...
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Controlled Mechanical Ventilation (CMV)
What is the usual tidal volume (VT) delivered via mechanical ventilation?
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10-12 mL/kg; 6-8 mL/kg in acute lung injury.
What conditions are contraindications for Rapid-Sequence Intubation (RSI)?
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Comatose and cardiac arrest.
What class of medications increases the risk of peptic/stress ulcers while on a vent?
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Corticosteroids
What 2 factors are used to determine tissue O2 delivery?
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Amount of O2 carried by Hgb and cardiac output.
_______ is the most common cause of a failure to utilize O2 (i.e. delivered to body tissues, but not extracted).
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Septic shock
_______ alterations can interfere with O2 delivery to peripheral tissues.
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Acid-base
A patient is experiencing circumoral and peripheral numbness and tingling. These are signs of...
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hyperventilation
What clinical evidence points to the possibility a patient has developed VAP?
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Fever, increased WBC, purulent sputum, crackles or rhonchi, and pulmonary infiltrates on CXR.
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_______ is additional expiratory pressure over what is set on a vent. It can cause barotrauma and increase WOB.
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Auto - PEEP
Type of ventilation? Set rate, set volume, set FIO2. When patient breathes, delivers set VT and FIO2...
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Assist Controlled Ventilation (ACV)
What conditions are contraindications for using PEEP?
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Conditions with highly compliant lungs like: COPD, unilateral/non-uniform disease, hypovolemia, and low CO.
CPAP should be used cautiously in patients with _______ because it increases WOB.
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myocardial compromise
When PEEP is titrated to improve oxygenation without compromising hemo-dynamics, this is called...
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Physiologic PEEP. Usually 5 cm H2O. Prophlaxis to prevent alveolar collapse.
_______ is a phenomenon that reflects substantial lung dysfunction.
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Hypercapnia
What impact does NPPV have on patients with cardiogenic pulmonary edema?
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Restores functional reserve capacity, opens collapsed alveoli, decreases preload and afterload, and increases CO.
What 2 conditions are candidates for NPPV over intubation?
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COPD and cardiogenic pulmonary edema.
_______ is done by analyzing exhaled gas of a patient on a vent. It can detect sepsis, hypo/hyperventilation and decrease CO.
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PETCO2 monitoring
_______ is used during intubation to produce skeletal muscle paralysis.
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Succinylcholine/Anectine
_______ is required when a patient has ECMO for pulmonary support.
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Systemic Anticoagulants
  
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