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Endrocine medications & insulinsMedical-Surgical Nursing-7th edition

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In maturity-onset/Type II diabetes, the oral antidiabetic drug group that stimulates beta cells to secrete more insulin is _______.
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sulfonylureas
_______ can increase blood sugar levels; insulin or oral antidiabetic drugs may need to be increased.
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Glucocorticoids
The usual dose of prednisone is _______.
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5-60 mg/d
How does prednisone work?
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Suppresses cell-mediated immune response; suppresses renal function.
The oral hypoglycemic action is to...
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increase the number of insulin cell receptors
What are the drawbacks to GH therapy?
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Cost ($20,000 year), only works on non-fused bones, and increases blood sugar by suppressing insulin, leading to diabetes.
The newest class of nonsulfonylureas is the thiazolidinedione group. This group of oral antidiabetics does not promote insulin release but...
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increases insulin sensitivity for improving blood glucose control
What are incretins and what do they do?
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Hormones that come from the intestines. Go to beta cells and increase levels of insulin synthesis and decrease the production of glucagon by the alpha cell.
Byetta is administered via _______. It is the synthetic form of _______.
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Sub Q; GLP - I (glucagons like peptide I)
Serum _______ usually decrease and blood sugar levels _______ when glucocorticoids are taken over an extended period.
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potassium decrease; blood sugar increase
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HHNK and DKA are instances when insulin would be given via _______.
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IV (*only normal insulin)
What should you do before administering insulin?
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Check the expiration date.
ACTH should be _______ because adrenal _______ may result.
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tapered; adrenal hypofunction may occur
_______ is the only insulin that doesn't cause hypoglycemia.
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Lantus
How is insulin titrated?
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Fasting blood sugar level
What side effects are common with Parlodel and Sandostatin?
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GI side effects
Insulin injections in the stomach should not be given within an inch of _______.
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umbilicus
Cibacalcin (calcitonin), Calcimar and Didronel are used to treat _______.
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Hyperthyroidism (Paget's disease and hypercalcemia)
In general, glucocorticoids cause water _______, potassium _______ and _______ blood pressure.
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water retention; K+ loss; increases BP (also increases Na)
What administration method should be questioned when giving cortisol?
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Sub Q; IM is used, but rarely.
_______ is sometimes added to corticotropin preparations to _______ the absorption rate.
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Zinc to slow rate
  
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