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Oncological emergencies and cancer medsMedical-Surgical Nursing-7th edition

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What are the signs and symptoms of hypercalcemia?
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Apathy, depression, fatigue, weakness, EKG changes, polyuria/ nocturia, and/or n/v. *Can lead to renal failure.
What are the signs and symptoms of SIADH?
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Weight gain, weakness, anorexia, n/v, personality changes, seizures, and/or coma.
SIADH is most commonly caused by carcinoma of the _______.
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lung
Intense back pain, vertebral tenderness aggravated by the Valsalva maneuver, motor weakness, paresthesia and autonomic dysfunction are signs and symptoms of what oncologic emergency?
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Spinal cord compression. *Changes in bowel/bladder function = autonomic dysfunction.
How is cardiac tamponade treated?
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Surgery (to create a flap or insert an indwelling catheter), O2, IV hydration, vasopressors.
Rupture of the carotid artery occurs most frequently in patients with _______ cancer secondary to invasion of an arterial wall by a tumor or erosion from surgery or radiation.
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head and neck
For a patient with cancer, the nurse should suggest the need for a nutritional supplement if a _______% weight loss is noted.
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5% (*monitor albumin levels)
What is the primary cause of death in patients with cancer?
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Infection. Common locations: lungs, GU system, mouth, rectum, peritoneal cavity, and blood.
How is hypercalcemia treated?
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Hydration (3L/day), diuretic, biphosphonate (inhibits osteoclasts). *Example: Zometa or Aredia.
What is a common trigger for tumor lysis syndrome?
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Chemo
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What are common causes of 3rd space syndrome?
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Extensive surgery, biologic therapy, and septic shock.
What are infiltrative emergencies?
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The infiltration of major organs by tumors or secondary to cancer therapy that causes swelling.
How is 3rd space syndrome treated?
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Fluid and electrolyte replacement and plasma protein replacement.
What are the initial signs and symptoms of 3rd space syndrome?
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Hypovolemia, hypotension, tachycardia, low CVP, and decreased urine output.
What are the signs and symptoms of cardiac tamponade?
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Heavy feeling in chest, SOB/dyspnea, tachycardia, cough/dysphagia, hiccups, hoarseness, n/v, diaphoresis, pulsus paradoxis, distant/muted heart sounds, and/or extreme anxiety.
_______ occurs when fluid accumulates in the pericardial sac, constriction of the pericardium from a tumor or pericarditis secondary to radiation.
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Cardiac tamponade
What causes a metabolic emergency in patients with cancer?
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Production of ectopic hormones by a tumor. Metabolic alterations caused by cancer or cancer treatments.
_______ is a metabolic emergency that occurs with metastatic disease of the bone or multiple myeloma.
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Hypercalcemia
What cancers are associated with superior vena cava syndrome?
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Lung, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and metastatic breast cancer.
Facial edema, periorbital edema, head/neck/chest vein distention, headache, seizures and/or a mediastinal mass are signs and symptoms of what oncologic emergency?
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Superior vena cava syndrome
  
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