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Quantitative Nursing ResearchFoundations of Nursing Research-5th Ed.

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_______ studies are conducted when little is known about the phenomenon of interest.
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Exploratory
In _______ studies, hypotheses are generally not appropriate, a flexible approach (rather than structured) is used, and qualitative and quantitative data is of interest. The study itself is not considered qualitative.
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Exploratory
Why are exploratory studies considered quantitative?
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The data collected (although in some part qualitative)is intended to be categorized, grouped and eventually generalized to other patients
In _____ studies, phenomena are described or the relationship between variables is examined.
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Descriptive
What is the major difference between exploratory and descriptive studies?
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Exploratory studies are done when little is known about a phenomenon. Desciptive studies are done when enough information is available to identify variables that may have a relationship
_______ studies are done to search for causal explanations and are very rigorous. Enough knowledge exists that the invstigator is able to exercise some degree of control over the variables and and research conditions.
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Explanatory
How do explanatory studies differ from descriptive and exploratory studies?
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Descriptive/exploratory describe phenomena and examine relationships among phenomena Explanatory provides explanations for the relationships between phenomena
Quantitative esearch studies are divided into _______ and ________ designs.
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Exprimental and non-experimental
Experimental research designs are ultimately concerned with __________ relationships.
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Cause and effect
All ________ studies involve manipulation or control of the independent variable and measurement of the dependent variable.
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Experimental
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_______ variables are those variables an experimentor is unable to control or chooses not to control that may influence the results of the study.
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Extraneous
Confounding and intervening are terms used synonymously with ______ variables.
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Extraneous
Extraneous variables are referred to as ___________, and they are acknowledged in the discussion section of a research report.
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Study limitations
_______ validity of an experimental design refers to the degree with which the investigator can attribute the changes in the dependent variable to the manipulation of the independent variable.
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Internal
What are threats to internal validity?
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Factors aside from the independent variable that influences the dependent variable.
_______ vaidity concerns the degree with which the study results can be generalized to other people and other settings.
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External
When a researcher attempts to control for internal validity, ________ is usually decreased.
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External validity
What are the 6 main threats to internal validity?
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Selection bias, history that influences the dependent variable (like 9-11), maturation, testing, instrumentation change, and mortality.
Selection bias is most likely when subjects are not...
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Randomly assigned to experimental and control groups
________ occurs when study results attributed to the experimental treatment or manipulation of the independent variable are, in actuality, due to the differences of the subjects prior to manipulation of the independent variable.
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Selection bias
  
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