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Respiratory Structure FunctionMedical-Surgical Nursing-7th edition

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How do peripheral chemoreceptors respond to decreases in arterial oxygenation?
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They stimulate the respiratory center to increase the rate of ventilation. They are responsible for all of the rate increase in response to arterial hypoxemia.
What are the major muscles of inspiration?
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The diaphragm and the external intercostal muscles.
Lungs contain approximately _____ million alveoli and birth and ______ million by adulthood.
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25 million at birth, 300 million by adulthood
What are the accessory muscles of inspiration?
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The sternocleidomastoid and scalene muscles.
What are the major muscles of expiration?
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There are none because it is a passive process and requires no muscular effort.
What are the accessory muscles of expiration?
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The abdominal and internal intercostal muscles. They assist when minute volume is high, during coughing, or if an airway obstruction is present.
What happens if surfactant is not produced in adequate quantities?
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Alveolar surface tension increases resulting in alveolar collapse, decreased lung expansion, increased work of breathing and gas-exchange abnormalities.
_______ is the term for the tendency of the lungs to return to the resting state after inspiration.
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Elastic recoil
________ is the measure of lung and chest wall distensibility. It represents the ease of stretching and is closely connected to elastic recoil.
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Lung compliance
Lung compliance is ________ in conditions like emphysema (increased or decreased?).
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Lung compliance is ________ in conditions like ARDS, pneumonia, and pulmonary edema (increased or decreased?).
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Where does most of a person's airway resistance occur?
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In the nose
What are the most basic requirements for adequate ventilation, perfusion and diffusion?
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Adequate inspired O2 ? (FiO2), ventilation and perfusion of alveoli, a permeable alveolocapillary membrane, adequate blood flow, ability to transport O2 and CO2, and ability of cell to use O2 and eliminate CO2
All pressure and volume measurements made in pulmonary function labs must specify the _______ and _________ of a gas at the time of measurement.
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Temperature and humidity
What are the four steps of gas transport (delivery of oxygen to and removal of CO2 from cells)?
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Ventilation of the lungs, diffusion of oxygen from the alveoli into the capillary blood, perfusion of systemic capillaries with oxygenated blood, and diffusion of oxygen from systemic capillaries into the cells. Transportation of CO2 occurs in reverse order.
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