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Problem Solving as ManagementLeading and Managing in Nursing 4th Ed.

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Environmental conditions, time and resources are examples of _______ factors that influence decision making.
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External
"We've always done it this way" is an example of an internal or external factor in decision making?
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External
What are the two primary criteria for effective decision making?
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-The decision must be of high quality, defined as achieving the goals, objectives and outcomes. -Those who implement it, must accept it
When are higher-quality decisions more likely to occur?
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When groups are involved in the decision making process as opposed to an individual
What are the drawbacks to using a small group for decision making?
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-fewer options will be generated and fewer points of view expressed
What are the drawbacks to using a large group for decision making?
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May lack structure, consensus is more difficult to achieve
What characteristic of individuals within a group tend to decrease effectiveness of a decision making process?
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Authoritarian, aggressive or self-oriented
What are the major advantages of group decision making?
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-Quality outcomes are more likely when different skills, knowledge sets, and views are involved -Participation, especially of follower, facilitates "buy in" to the solution -Consensus is easier to achieve
What are the disadvantges of "Majority Rule" in group decision making?
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-may only partially achieve goals/objectives -group leaders in the minority may not support the majority decision -Members may support the formal leader even if they don't agree with the decision for fear of reprisal -Members may form coalitions to block majority votes
What are the disadvantages to group decision making?
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-requires time -not appropriate in crisis situations -dominant personality types influence passive members -Defending positions may waste time and cause loss of the primary objective -group harmony may be the unspoken goal, resulting in no active discussion or creative thinking
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What are killer phrases?
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Phrases that are inflammatory and shut down a creative thinking process. Examples: "That will never work." "We tried that before." "It's not in the budget."
The __________ is a strategy that facilitates brainstorming by having all group members present but not communicating with one another as they write ideas for solutions down. Each member selects one idea to share to the group. Discussion is then open. Privately, members assign priority to the ideas and the highest by majority is implemented.
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Nominal Group Technique
What are the advantages of the Nominal Group Technique?
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-allows equal participation -minimizes influence of dominant personalities
What are the disadvantages to the Nominal group technique?
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-time consuming -requires advanced prep -requires the group comes together physically
The purpose of _______ is to explore issues and generate information and involves groups meeting face to face and discussing issues.
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Focus Groups
What are the advantages of focus groups?
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Participants can validate/disagree with ideas, yields a lot of information
What are the disadvantages of focus groups?
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Issues revolving around group dynamics, getting everyone togehter, time involved
The _______ technique involves sysematically collecting and summarizing opinions and judgmens from respondents such as expert panalists, through interviews, surveys or questionnaires. The opinions are constantly fed back to them to offer more refined opinions. The goal is to reach a consensus.
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Delphi technique
What are the benefits of the Delphi technique?
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-ability to involve large numbers of respondents -no need for assembly -little time committment on the part of the participant -saves time by eliminating digression seen in meetings -avoids negative verbal/nonverbal behavior
What are the disadvantages to the Delphi technique?
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-lower sense of accoplishment/involvement
What are the most common quantitative tools used for decision making?
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Decision grids and payoff tables
  
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