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Acid Base ImbalancesMedical Surgical Nursing

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Question Answer
Which acid-base mechanism is the primary regulator?
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The buffer system
Carbonic acid-bicarbonate, monohydrogen-dihydrogen phosphate, and intracellular and plasma protein are examples of ________ in the body.
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Buffers (hemoglobin buffers are also part of this mechanism)
A _______ consists of a weakly ionized acid or base and its salt.
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Buffer
Which acid does the Carbonic acid-bicarbonate buffer neutralize?
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HCl (Hydrochloric acid)
Which part of the buffer system creates CO2 and water from acids?
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Carbonic Acid-Bicarbonate
Which component of the buffer system creates NaCl, and sodium biphosphate (NaH2PO4) from acids and forms weaker bases and H2O from bases?
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Phosphate buffer
Which part of the buffer system creates CO2, Hydrogen ions (H+), Ammonia (NH3), OH- (hydroxide) and H2O?
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Intracellular and extracellular proteins
_________ is a part of the buffer system that shifts Chloride in and out of Red Blood cells in exchange for carbonate.
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Hemoglobin
The ______ acts as a buffer by shifting hydrogen in and out of the cell in exchange for other ions like K+.
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Cell
The _________ help maintain normal pH by excreting CO2 and water, which are by-products of cellular metabolism.
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Lungs
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What is the rate of excretion of CO2 controlled by?
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The respiratory center in the Medulla in the brainstem
How do the lungs retain CO2?
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Hypoventilation
How do the lungs eliminate CO2?
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Hyperventilation
How do the kidneys compensate for acidosis?
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They generate additional bicarbonate and eliminate excess H+
What are the three mechanisms that the kidneys utilize to eliminate acids from the body?
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1. they secrete small amounts of free hydrogen into the renal tubule 2. combines H+ with ammonia (NH3) to form ammonium (NH4+) 3. they excrete weak acids
________ imbalances affect carbonic acid concentrations.
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Respiratory imbalances
_________ imbalances affect the base bicarbonate.
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Metabolic
An increase in carbonic acid is called...
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Respiratory acidosis
A decrease is carbonic acid is called...
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Metabolic acidosis
A decrease in carbonic acid is called...
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Respiratory alkalosis
An increase in bicarbonate is called...
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Metabolic alkalosis
  
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