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Acid Base ImbalancesMedical Surgical Nursing

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Question Answer
An increase in bicarbonate is called...
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Metabolic alkalosis
Hypoventilation causes ____________.
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Respiratory acidosis
When does the renal compensatory system begin to combat respiratory acidosis?
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Within 24 hours, therefore, if the bicarbonate level is within normal limits and the carbonic acid is low, compensation hasn't begun and the condition is a recent development
Hyperventilation causes __________.
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Respiratory alkalosis
The primary cause of respiratory alkalosis is ________.
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Hypoxemia from acute pulmonary disorders
Anxiety, CNS disorders and mechanical overventilation can lead to what acid-base imbalance?
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Respiratory alkalosis
Why is compensated respiratory alkalosis rare?
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In most cases, hypoxemia is aggressively treated which allows no time for the body to begin compensation
T/F Metabolic acidosis occurs when there is an accummulation of carbonic acids from disease processes.
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False, metabolic acidosis occurs from a build up of acid other than carbonic acid (like lactic acid and ketoacid)
Metabolic acidosis always results in _______ of bicarbonate, whether the cause is an accumulation of acids or a loss of bicarbonate from body fluids.
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Deficits
What conditions can cause metabolic acidosis?
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Diabetic Ketoacidosis and Shock (lactic acid build up)
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Kussmaul respirations can be a compensation for what acid-base imbalance?
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Metabolic acidosis
What can cause metabolic alkalosis?
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Severe vomiting and/or diarrhea, consumption of baking soda and oversuctioning of gastric contents
T/F The primary mechanism for compensating for metabolic alkalosis is increased excretion of bicarbonate from the renal system.
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False, the primary mechanism is hypoventilation. The kidneys do excrete excess bicarbonate, but it takes some time.
T/F It is possible to have a near normal pH AND have an acid-base imbalance.
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True, it is possible to have more than one acid-base imbalance that causes the pH to be near normal
T/F It is not possible to have metabolic acidosis and respiratory acidosis at the same time. Mixed acid-base imbalances involve some form of acidosis (respiratory OR metabolic) with some form of alkalosis.
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False. You can have any mix of the four imbalances.
What accounts for many of the clinical manifestations of alkalosis?
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Hypocalcemia, which occurs from calcium binding with albumin and lowering the amount that is bioavailable
What patient information can be determined from Arterial Blood Gas (ABG) values?
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Their acid base status Their underlying cause of the imbalance Their overall oxygenation status
PaCO2 is considered the ________ component of arterial blood gasses. High levels indicate acidosis, low levels indicate alkalosis.
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Respiratory.
Which acid-base imbalance? Low plasma pH Elevated PaCO2 Normal or high HCO3- Urine pH is under 6
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Respiratory acidosis
Which acid base imbalance? High plasma pH Low PaCO2 Normal or low HCO3- Urine pH greater than 6
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Respiratory alkalosis
Which acid base imbalance? Low plasma pH Normal or low PaCO2 Low HCO3- Urine pH less than 6
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Metabolic acidosis
  
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