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Acid Base ImbalancesMedical Surgical Nursing

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Which acid base imbalance? Low plasma pH Normal or low PaCO2 Low HCO3- Urine pH less than 6
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Metabolic acidosis
Which acid base imbalance? High plasma pH Normal or high PaCO2 High HCO3- Urine pH greater than 6
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Metabolic alkalosis
COPD, barbituate/sedative overdose, obesity, severe pneumonia, atelectasis, Guillain-Barre syndrome, and mechanical hypoventilation are all common causes of what acid-base imbalance?
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Respiratory acidosis
Hypoxia, pulmonary emboli, anxiety, fear, pain, exercise, septicemia, encephalitis, brain injuries, salicylate poisoning and mechanical hyperventilation are common causes of what acid-base imbalance?
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Respiratory alkalosis
Diabetic ketoacidosis, lactic acidosis, starvation, severe diarrhea, renal tubular acidosis, renal failure, GI fistulas, and shock are common causes of what acid-base imbalance?
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Metabolic acidosis
Severe vomiting, excessive gastric suctioning, diuretic therapy, potassium deficits, excess intake of baking soda, or excessive mineralcorticoids are all common causes of what acid-base imbalance?
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Metabolic alkalosis
Which acid-base imbalance presents with the following symptoms? Drowsiness, disorientation, dizziness, headache, coma, low BP, ventricular fibrillation, warm, flushed skin, seizures and hypoventilation
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Respiratory acidosis
Which acid base imbalance presents with the following signs and symptoms? Drowsiness, confusion, headache, coma, low BP, dysrhythmias, warm, flushed skin, nausea, vomiting diarrhea, abdominal pain, deep, rapid respirations
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Metabolic acidosis
What are main differences in signs and symptoms between respiratory acidosis and metabolic acidosis?
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Respiratory acidosis causes ventricular fibrillation, seizures, and HYPOVENTILATION...no GI symptoms Metabolic acidosis causes HYPERVENTILATION and GI symptoms (nausea, vomiting, diarrhea), and dysrhythmias
Acidosis, whether metabolic or respiratory, causes high or low Potassium levels?
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High, a lot of the cardiac symptoms are from hyperkalemia
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Which acid base imbalance presents with the following signs and symptoms? Lethargy, light-headedness,confusion, tachycardia, dysrhythmias, nausea, vomiting, epigastric pain, tetany, numbness, tingling of extremities, hyperreflexia, seizures, and/or hyperventilation
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Respiratory alkalosis
Which acid base imbalance presents with the following signs and symptoms? Dizziness, irritability, nervousness, confusion, tachycardia, dysrhythmias, nausea, vomiting, anorexia, tetany, tremors, tingling of fingers and toes, muscle cramps, hypertonic muscles, seizures, hypoventilation
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Metabolic alkalosis
What are main differences in signs and symptoms between respiratory alkalosis and metabolic alkalosis?
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Respiratory Alkalosis: HYPERVENTILATION, epigastric pain, hyperreflexia Metabolic alkalosis: HYPOVENTILATION, anorexia, hypertonic muscles, irritability
How do blood gasses differ when drawn from arterial vs. venous locations?
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PaCO2 is 35-45 mmHg if arterial, 40-45 mmHg if venous PaO2 is 80-100 mm Hg if arterial, 40-50 mmHg if venous Oxygen Saturation is 96-100% arterial, 60-85% venous
  
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