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Problems of Oxygenation VentilationMedical Surgical Nursing

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Where is the site of gas exchange in the lungs?
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The alveolar-capillary membrane
Why does pulmonary edema reduce gas exchange in the lungs?
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The excess fluid fills the interstitial spaces and alveoli, covering the capillary-alveolar membrane
________ is a lipoprotein that reduces the amount of pressure needed to inflate alveoli and also decreases the tendency for them to collapse.
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Surfactant
What is the function of a sigh and how often do they occur?
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They usually occur every five-six breaths and they stretch alveoli to promote surfactant secretion
________ refers to collapsed, airless alveoli.
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Atelectasis
How thick is the respiratory membrane?
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1/5000 of an inch/5 micrometers
Why is a post-operative patient at risk for atelectasis?
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The effects of anesthesia and the tendency to restrict breathing in response to pain
The lungs have two diffent types of circulation, pulmonary and bronchial. _______ circulation provides blood to the lungs for gas exchange.
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Pulmonary
The lungs have two diffent types of circulation, pulmonary and bronchial. _______ circulation provides oxygen to the lung tissue.
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Bronchial
The _______ artery receives deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle of the heart and branches so that each pulmonary capillary is directly connected to many alveoli.
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Pulmonary
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Bronchial circulation starts with the bronchial arteries which arise from the __________.
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Thoracic aorta
Deoxygenated blood returns from bronchial circulation through the _______ vein into the left atrium of the heart.
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azygos
What makes up the thoracic cage?
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24 ribs and the sternum
The thoracic cage, pleura and respiratory muscles are the structures that make up the _________.
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Chest wall
The chest wall is lined with a membrane called the ________ pleura, and the lungs are lined with a membrane called the _______ pleura.
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Chest wall-parietal pleura Lungs-visceral pleura
Which pleura in the chest wall has sensory nerve fibers (and thus indicates pain)?
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Parietal pleura (the source of pain from pleury, pleuritis, etc.)
How is pleural effusion different from empyema?
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Pleural effusion is an accumulation of fluid in the intrapleural space Empyema is an accumulation of purulent fluid (from bacteria) in the intrapleural space
The pleural space normally contains 20-25 mL of fluid. An excess of fluid is called...
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Pleural effusion
What can cause pleural effusion?
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Blockage of lymphatic drainage (i.e. from malignant cells), or from conditions like heart failure where intravascular and oncotic pressures are imbalanced
What happens to abdominal contents when you take a deep breath in?
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The diaphragm contracts, increasing pressure and pushing the abdominal contents down
A spinal cord injury above the level of ______ results in diaphragmatic paralysis and creates a dependence on a mechanical ventilator.
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C3
  
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