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Upper Respiratory ProblemsMedical Surgical Nursing

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What immunoglobulin is involved in persistent rhinitis?
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IgE
What causes the early symptoms of sneezing, itching, rhinorrhea (runny nose), and/or congestion from allergic rhinitis?
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Mast cells and basophils release histamine, prostaglandins, and leukotrienes.
What maintains the inflammatory response associated with allergic rhinities?
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2-4 hours after exposure to an antigen, the body releases inflammatory cells into the nasal tissue which perpetuates symptoms
A patient comes to the clinic complaining that they have had a cold that won't go away. He indicates that his nose has been running like a faucet, his eyes have been watery, his head has been pounding and he constantly needs to clear his throat. You look in his nasal cavity and see boggy, pale nasal turbinates. You suspect that this patient has...
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Allergic rhinitis
What is the most important step in controlling allergic rhinitis?
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Identifying the trigger
What three classes of drugs are commonly used to treat allergic rhinitis?
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-Antihistamines (2nd generation is preferred) -intranasal corticosteroids -Leukotriene receptor antagonists (LTRAs)
When should a person with seasonal allergies begin using an intranasal corticosteroid?
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2-3 weeks prior to the allergy season
T/F Acute viral rhinitis is the same thing as a cold.
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True.
What is the most prevalent infectious disease?
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Acute viral rhinitis (a cold)
Acute viral rhinitis is cause by _________ that invades the upper respiratory tract and often accompanies an Upper Respiratory Infection (URI).
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an adenovirus
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What is acute coryza?
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The common cold/acute viral rhinitis
How long can the virus that causes the common cold survive on inanimate objects?
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For up to 3 days
What 7 things should a patient who suffers from Allergic rhinitis avoid?
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1. the allergen 2. house dust mites 3. mold spores 4. house dust 5. pollens 6. pet allergens 7. smoke
What are the three D's that promote mold spores?
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Damp Dark Drafts
T/F Dehumidifiers are useful in reducing the mold spores that can trigger allergic rhinitis.
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False
How long after removing a pet from the home should a person with allergic rhinitis expect some symptom relief?
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2 months
Echinacea is an alternative therapy to threat URIs, treat UTIs and promote wound healing. What are the nursing implications?
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-it may interfere with drugs that suppress the immune system (so somebody with RA, lupus, etc. should probably not take it) -may lead to liver inflammation, so if the patient is on any other drugs or herbs that are hepatotoxis they probably shouldn't tak
What is the recommended course of therapy for Echinacea?
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10-14 days
Goldenseal is an alternative therapy used for heart failure, infectious diarrhea or URIs. What are the nursing implications of this herb?
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-should be used with caution in patients with cardiovascular disease -may increase risk of bleeding, so patients on anticoagulants shouldn't take it -should not be taken during pregnancy or lactation -shouldn't be taken for longer than 2-3 weeks
How do corticosteroid nasal sprays like Vancenase, Rhinocort, Nasalide, Flonase, Nasonex, and Nasacort work?
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They inhibit the inflammatory response
In rare cases, corticosteroid nasal sprays can cause a _________ infection.
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A fungal infection with Candida Albicans
  
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