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Upper Respiratory ProblemsMedical Surgical Nursing

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Question Answer
In rare cases, corticosteroid nasal sprays can cause a _________ infection.
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A fungal infection with Candida Albicans
T/F Nasal corticosteroids provide immediate symptom relief and should be used prn.
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False, they should be used on a regular basis because the effect isn't immediate
What type of drug is NasalCrom and how does it work?
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It is a mast cell stabilizer, it inhibits degranulation of mast cells
What type of drug are Accolate and Singulair? How do they work?
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They are Leukotriene Receptor Antagonists (LTRAs), they work by preventing leukotriene activity, inhibiting airway edema, bronchoconstriction and decreasing the inflammatory response
What type of drug is Zyflo and how does it work?
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Zyflo is a Leukotriene Inhibitor, it works by preventing leukotriene activity, inhibiting airway edema, bronchoconstriction and decreasing the inflammatory response (just like LTRAs)
What are the nursing considerations for a patient on Zafirlukast (Accolate) and Zileuton (Zyflo)?
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-if the patient is also taking theophylline (used to treat COPD) or coumadin, their theophylline and PT levels must be monitored -liver function tests must be done periodically -Admin on an empty stomach
Churg-Strauss syndrome can occur in rare instances in patients who take _________. The physician should be notified immediately if symptoms develop.
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Accolate (zarfirlukast)
What type of drug is Atrovent (ipratropium bromide) and how does it work?
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Atrovent is an anticholinergic nasal spray and it works by blocking hypersecretory effecting by competing for cell binding sites.
T/F Atrovent (ipratropium bromide) can be used to treat symptoms of nonallergic rhinitis and rhinorrhea of the common cold.
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True
What is the onset of action for Atrovent (ipratropium bromide)?
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Within 1 hour of use
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Tavist (Clemastine), Diphenhydramine (Benadryl), Tripelennamine (PBZ), Brompheniramine (Dimetane), Chlorpehniramine (Chlor-Trimeton), Dexchlorpheniramine (Polaramine) and Azatadine (Optimine) are all examples of _________ generation antihistamines.
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First
How do Tavist (Clemastine), Diphenhydramine (Benadryl), Tripelennamine (PBZ), Brompheniramine (Dimetane), Chlorpehniramine (Chlor-Trimeton), Dexchlorpheniramine (Polaramine) and Azatadine (Optimine) work?
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They bind with H1 receptors on target cells, blocking histamine binding by crossing the blood-brain-barrier (this is also what causes sedation or stimulation)
Which group of antihistamines are more likely to cause sedation, Ethanolamines, Ethylenediamines, Alkylamines, or Piperidines?
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Ethanolamines (Tavist & Benedryl)
What symptoms should a patient who is on first generation antihistamines like Tavist (Clemastine), Diphenhydramine (Benadryl), Tripelennamine (PBZ), Brompheniramine (Dimetane), Chlorpehniramine (Chlor-Trimeton), Dexchlorpheniramine (Polaramine) and Azatadine (Optimine) report?
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Palpitations, changes in heart rate, and changes in bowel or bladder habits
Drowsiness related to use of first generation anithistamines usually passes after (how long?).
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2 weeks
Ioratadine (Claritin),Cetirizine (Zyrtec), Fexofenadine (Allegra) and Desloratadine (Clarinex) are all examples of _________ generation antihistamines.
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Second
How do antihistamines like Ioratadine (Claritin),Cetirizine (Zyrtec), Fexofenadine (Allegra) and Desloratadine (Clarinex) work?
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They block H1 receptors on target cells, blocking the effects of histamine
What other drug class should be avoided for patients on antihistamines like Ioratadine (Claritin),Cetirizine (Zyrtec), Fexofenadine (Allegra) and Desloratadine (Clarinex)?
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Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MOIs)
How are first and second generation antihistamines different?
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Second generation antihistamines don't have an affinity for H1 receptors in the brain, whereas first generation ones do (which is what causes the sedative effect)
How does decongestants like Sudafed (pseudoephedrine), Oxymetazoline (Dristan), and Phenylephrine (Neo-Synephrine) work?
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They stimulate adrenergic receptors on blood vessels, promoting vasoconstriction which reduces nasal edema and rhinorrhea.
Insomnia, excitation, headache, irritability, increased blood and ocular pressure, dysuria, palpitations and tachycardia are side effects that can occur from what medication?
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Sudafed
  
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