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Upper Respiratory ProblemsMedical Surgical Nursing

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Which antiviral medications are given to treat or prevent symptoms of the flu after an outbreak occurs?
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Amantadine(Symmetrel) or Rimantidine (Flumadine)
Which antiviral medications are given to prevent or treat influenza A or B?
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Zanamivir (Relenza) and Oseltamirvir (Tamiflu)
How do the antiviral drugs used to treat flu work?
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They are neuraminidase inhibitors that prevents the flu from budding off and invading other cells
Ideally, antiviral medications used to treat the flu should be given within _______ of the initial symptoms.
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2 days
Which antiviral flu medication is administered via inhaler?
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Zanamivir (Relenza)
Sinusitis develops when the ________ from the sinuses are narrowed or blocked by inflammation or hypertrophy of the mucosa and the secretions behind the obstruction create a rich medium for bacterial growth.
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Ostia (exit)
What are the three most common causes of sinusitis (as in pathogens)?
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Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae or Moraxella catarrhalis
Viral sinusitis typically follows an Upper Respiratory infection (URI) in which the virus penetrates the mucus membrane and decreases ________.
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Ciliary transport (remember, this destruction of ciliary transport leads to chronic URIs in people with COPD)
What type of patient is most likely to contract fungal sinusitis?
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Those that are debilitated or immunocompromised
________ sinusitis usually results from URIs, allergic rhinitis, swimming or dental manipulation whcih can trigger inflammatory changes and retention of secretions.
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Acute
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What is the typical clinical picture of sinusitis that follows viral rhinitis?
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The symptoms of the cold worsen after 5-7 days and are worse than the original rhinitis.
Chronic sinusitis is a persistent infection that lasts longer than 3 weeks, usually develops from several bouts of acute sinusitis that destroy the __________ of the sinus cavity.
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Normal ciliated epithelium
You have a patient that comes in to get treatment for a recurring headache. Your assessment findings include hyperemic, edematous mucosa, purulent nasal drainage, enlarged turbinates, and tenderness over the eyebrows and cheeks. You know this is a classic presentation of....
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Acute sinusitis (over the eyebrows is the frontal sinus and over the cheeks is the maxillary sinus)
T/F Chronic sinusitis is usually accompanied by a fever, purulent nasal discharge and severe pain.
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False. It is usually afebrile and can easily mimic allergies. Rarely are purulent discharge or severe pain present.
What tools can be used for a positive diagnosis of chronic sinusitis?
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Xrays of the sinuses or a CT scan
_______ is a common co-occuring condition with chronic sinusitis.
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Asthma
What is the first line drug of choice to treat acute sinusitis?
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Amoxicillin for 10-14 days
A patient has been on initial antibiotic therapy for an acute sinus infection for 2 weeks and hasn't gotten better. What drugs should be considered for further treatment?
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A broad spectrum antibiotic like Sulfamethoxazole (Bactrim) or Erythromycin
How long does antibiotic treatment for chronic sinusitis typically last?
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4-6 weeks
T/F Ancillary medications can treat symptoms r/t chronic sinusitis in conjunction with antibiotic treatment. Oral decongestants promote drainage, nasal corticosteroids decrease inflammation and first generation antihistamines block excessive secretion production.
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False. All the medications are fine for chronic sinusitis except antihistamines. First generation antihistamines perpetuate symptoms and second generation have shown no benefit.
What measures can a patient take to reduce the discomforts of sinusitis?
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-Keep well hydrated (6-8 glasses of water a day) -Take hot showers twice daily, use a steam inhaler, bedside humidifier or nasal saline spray to promit secretion drainage -don't smoke or be around smokers -take analgesics, decongestants, medications an
  
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