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Lower Respiratory ProblemsMedical Surgical Nursing

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What are considered risk factors for TB?
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-homelessness -inner city resident -foreign born -older adult -institutionalization (prison, LTC facility, etc.) -injection drug user -persons living in poverty -people with poor access to health care -immunosuppression of any kind
What nationalities in the US have a higher incidence of TB?
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Asian Americans, Native Americans (AZ, NM), Pacific Islander and African Americans
T/F Health care workers are considered a high risk group for TB.
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True
How is TB spread?
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Airborne Droplets
T/F TB isn't considered highly infectious.
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True, repeated exposure (within 6 inches of a person's mouth) is how it is most commonly spread
T/F TB can be contracted by touching a book or glass that an infected person and touched and then touching your eyes or mouth.
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False
Once TB is in the alveoli, the _______ spreads it, carrying it to the upper lobes of the lungs, kidneys, bone epiphyses cerebral cortex and adrenal glands .
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Lymphatic system
How many weeks after exposure can it take for a person recently infected with TB to test positive?
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2-10 weeks
What is the difference between a TB infection and TB disease?
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TB infection denotes the body's immune system has contained the pathogen and they aren't contagious TB disease is active bacteria that can divide and cause a clinically active disease, they are contagious
T/F People with TB infections are reported to the CDC as a case of TB.
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False, people with LTBI (latent TB infection) aren't considered a case of TB
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What ethnic group has the highest rate of TB in the US?
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Asian Americans
A client comes to your clinic complaining of fatigue, malaise, and indicates he hasn't felt like eating. He has lost a lot of weight and has had intermittent fevers. He's also developed a cough with frothy, white sputum. You immediately request a test for...
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TB...this is a characteristic picture, along with night sweats
You are working in the HIV clinic and one of your patients comes in with a fever, cough and weight loss. You know you need to investigate pneumonia, TB, and other HIV opportunistic infections because...
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Clinical manifestations of resp. probs. in HIV patients must be carefully investigated because they have atypical presentations
Large numbers of TB organisms invading the bloodstream and spreading to all body organs simulataneously is called __________.
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Miliary TB
Which is more common from Pleural TB, empyema or effusion?
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Effusion
Of all the other organs and systems that may be infected with TB, the most serious involvement of TB is of the __________.
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Central Nervous System with inflammation of the meninges
What size induration is considered a positive TB test in immunocompromised patients?
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5 mm or more
What Xray findings are suggestive of TB?
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upper lobe infiltrates, cavitary infiltrates and lymph node involvement
What is required for a definitive diagnosis of TB?
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A bacteriologic study like an Acid Fast Bacillus sputum smear and culture
To do an AFB test for TB, ______ consecutive sputum samples are collected on different days and cultured. It can take up to _____ weeks for a diagnosis.
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3 consecutive samples and can take 8 weeks for a dx
T/F A new test called the QuantiFeron TB (QFT) can accurately diagnose TB by taking a patient's blood sample and placing it in a chamber with mycobacterial antigens. It only takes a few hours for the results.
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False, it can detect TB as part of screening (like the TST), but isn't a definitive diagnostic test
  
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