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Lower Respiratory ProblemsMedical Surgical Nursing

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T/F A new test called the QuantiFeron TB (QFT) can accurately diagnose TB by taking a patient's blood sample and placing it in a chamber with mycobacterial antigens. It only takes a few hours for the results.
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False, it can detect TB as part of screening (like the TST), but isn't a definitive diagnostic test
What is the typical treatement for TB?
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Four drugs for 6 months: Isoniazid (INH), rifampin (Rifadin), pyrazinamide (PZA) and ethambutol
There are 6 classifications of TB. What class indicates Clinically Active TB?
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Class 3: Positive AFB test and clinical and/or Xray support of disease
TB Class ________ means a patient has had TB in the past, but currently has no evidence of current disease.
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Four
TB Class _______ is suspected of having TB, but the definitive diagnosis is pending.
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Five
TB Class ______ means the person has been exposed to someone with active TB, but isn't infected themselves.
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One
TB Class ____ means the patient has been identified as having Latent TB Infection (LTBI).
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Two
What is the maximum amount of time a person can be designated as TB Class 5?
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3 months
A patient on Isoniazid should be monitored for signs of _______ damage and should be informed alcohol can increase toxicity.
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liver
Rifabutin is a TB drug that should be considered for patients that....
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Are on medications that interfere with rifampin or have an intolerance to rifampin
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Rifamate is a TB drug that combines...
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Isoniazid (INH) and Rifampin to increase compliance
Rifater is a TB drug that combines....
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Isoniazid (INH), Rifampin and Pyrazinamide to increase compliance
Quinolones have been identified as a second line of defense for TB treatment. Why are they not first line?
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They carry greater risks of toxicity and require closer monitoring
Nonviral hepatitis is a major side effect of Isoniazid, Rifampin and PZA. Baseline liver values are acquired prior to treatment for TB. How often should a person with ABNORMAL baseline liver values have liver function tests conducted during treatment?
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Monthly
How is a patient with LTBI treated?
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Typically with a 6-9 month course of Isoniazid (INH)
What vaccine can result in a positive reaction on a TB test?
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The bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine for disseminated TB
What is the best time of day to collect a sputum sample for TB?
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Early morning
What general, special measures should be taken for a patient admitted to the hospital with Active TB?
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-place them on airborne precautions -ensure they receive appropraite drug therapy -immediate medical workup including Chest Xray, sputum smears and cultures
What are the special characteristics of a hospital room of a patient on Airborne infection isolation (like TB patients)?
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-Single occupancy -Negative pressure and airflow of 6-12 exchanges per hour -UV radiation of the air in the upper part of the room -HEPA masks are worn by staff/visitors while in the room -the patient must wear a mask anytime they are out of the room
T/F TB patients who have been admitted into the hospital will not be discharged until they have three negative AFB smears and are showing clinical improvement.
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False, they may be sent home even with positive results (as long as they are showing clinical improvement) if their family has already been exposed and they aren't posing a risk to susceptible individuals
What are specific factors that can reactivate TB?
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Immunosuppressive therapy, malignancy, or a prolonged debilitating illness
  
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