Campus Collusion
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Cardiovascular SystemMedical Surgical Nursing

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How does increased contractility of myocardial fibers cause increased SV?
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It increases ventricular emptying (more contractility = a more forceful squeeze, resulting in more blood being pushed out)
What factors can cause increased contractility of myocardial fibers? (2)
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Norepinephrine released by the SNS or epinephrine
______ is the peripheral resistance against which the left ventricle must pump (to get blood into the high pressure systemic circulation).
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Afterload
What factors can impact afterload? (3)
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The size of the ventricle, the wall tension and arterial blood pressure.
What causes ventricular hypertrophy?
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Increased arterial blood pressure results in increased resistance in blood ejection. To compensate, the ventricle hypertrophies resulting in increased work (and oxygen consumption) without an increase in cardiac output.
The ability of the heart to respond to various oxygenation demands by altering cardiac output 3-4 fold is called...
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Cardiac reserve
______ are vascular structures that carry blood away from the heart.
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Arteries
All arteries except the _______ artery carries oxygenated blood.
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Pulmonary artery (carries deoxygenated blood to the lungs for oxygenation)
All veins except the ______ veins carry deoxygenated blood to the heart.
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Pulmonary veins
What is the general path of blood flow (by vascular structure) starting with the heart?
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Heart to the arteries, arteries to the arterioles, arterioles to the capillaries, capillaries to the venules, venules to the veins, veins to the heart. (Think large to small, then small to large)
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What are the major differences between arteries and arterioles?
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Arteries have thick walls and are mostly elastic tissue, larger arteries (pulmonary/aorta) have some smooth muscle Arterioles have very little elastic tissue and more smooth muscle
______ serve as the main control of arterial blood pressure and distribution of bloodflow. They respond to local conditions like low O2 or high CO2 by dilating and constricting.
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Arterioles
_______ are the site of exchange of cellular nutrients and metabolic end products.
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Capillaries (all endothelial cells, no muscle or elastic tissue)
What are the largest veins in the body?
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The superior vena cava and the inferior vena cava
_____ are large diameter, thin-walled vessels that return blood to the right atrium.
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Veins
The _____ vena cava returns blood to the heart from the head, neck and arms.
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Superior (think superior...structures on top)
The _____ vena cava returns blood to the heart from the lower portions of the body.
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Inferior
The superior vena cava and the inferior vena cava are affected by pressures in the _____ side of the heart. Increased pressures can cause distended neck veins.
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Right
The heart rate, speed of impulse conduction through the heart and the force of atrial and ventricular contractions is regulated by the Sympathetic or Parasympathetic system?
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Both, sympathetic increases, parasympathetic decreases
The source of neural control of blood vessels is the sympathetic or parasympathetic system?
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Sympathetic (via alpha adrenergic receptors)
T/F Blood vessels in skeletal muscle don't receive parasympathetic nervous system input.
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TRUE
  
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