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Cardiovascular SystemMedical Surgical Nursing

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Question Answer
T/F Blood vessels in skeletal muscle don't receive parasympathetic nervous system input.
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TRUE
What happens to the heart when baroreceptors are stimulated?
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The SNS effects are inhibited resulting in decreased heart rate and peripheral vasodilation.
Where are cardiac chemoreceptors located?
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The aortic arch and carotid body
Which of the five phases of Korotkoff sounds represents the systolic blood pressure?
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The first phase (first sound heard)
Which phase of the five Korotkoff sounds represents the diastolic blood pressure?
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The fifth one
What is an auscultatory gap?
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It is the gap in sound heard between the systolic and diastolic pressures when measuring using a BP cuff and stethoscope
What disease state can an increased pulse pressure indicate?
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Atherosclerosis
What conditions can a decreased pulse pressure indicate? (2)
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Cardiac failure, hypovolemia
What is the Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP) required to ensure vital organ perfusion?
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60, below that they become ischemic
What is the most common cardiovascular problem?
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Coronary Artery disease (CAD) secondary to atherosclerosis
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Why are older people less sensitive to beta adrenergic agonist drugs?
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The number and function of beta receptors in the heart are decreased with age
Kyphosis is a common development of aging, resulting in changes in the chest wall. How can kyphosis impact findings during a cardiac assessment?
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Heart sounds may sound distant and chest landmarks typically used for a cardiac assessment may be altered
Why might you have difficulty in locating an apical impulse in an elderly patient?
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It can shift downward as a normal part of aging
______ is often included in over the counter medications used to treat colds and can impact clotting time. It is important to get a thorough list of over the counter medications to identify those that might have cardiac implications.
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Aspirin
What are the major risk factors for cardiac complications? (5)
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Elevated serum lipids, hypertension, tobacco use, sedentary lifestyle, obesity. Stress and diabetes should also be considered.
What are the 9 cues of a cardiovascular problem?
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Fatigue, fluid retention irregular heartbeat, dyspnea, pain, tenderness in the calf of the leg, syncope, altered neurological function and leg pain that is relieved with rest.
Attacks of shortness of breath especially at night that awakens a person is referred to as...
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Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea
What type of respiration pattern is associated with heart failure?
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Cheyne-Stokes
_________ , a dysfunction of the reproductive system, may be a symptom of peripheral vascular disease and/or a side effect of medications used to treat cardiovascular problems.
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Erectile dysfunction
What can happen to a patient who takes Viagra and nitrates at the same time?
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Life-threatening hypotension
T/F There is no link between high levels of anxiety, anger and hostility and the development of cardiac problems although many studies have researched a possible connection.
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False. Frequent bouts of negative emotions are now considered a risk factor for heart problems.
  
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