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Cardiovascular SystemMedical Surgical Nursing

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T/F There is no link between high levels of anxiety, anger and hostility and the development of cardiac problems although many studies have researched a possible connection.
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False. Frequent bouts of negative emotions are now considered a risk factor for heart problems.
T/F Men are often less ill from heart disease when they are diagnosed.
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TRUE
How do men typically experience pain related to a heart attack?
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It is usually a crushing, substernal pain
Women typically experience the onset of heart disease approximately _____ years later than men.
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10
What pain is typically reported by women experiencing a heart attack?
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Pain located in the jaw, back, arms, epigastric region as well as fatigue, nausea, vomiting, sweating, and palpitations.
________ is recommended as an effective diagnostic method for identifying heart disease in women.
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Pharmacologic echocardiography
What are normal changes in systolic and diastolic blood pressures when changing from lying to standing positions?
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A reduction up to 15 mm Hg in systole and 3-5 mm Hg in diastole
What is a normal change in heart rate from lying down to standing up?
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A increase of no more than 20 beats per minute from baseline
You have measured a patient's blood pressure from both arms prior to taking a hypostatic blood pressure reading. One arm had a higher BP than the other. Which measurement should you use as the baseline, the one with the highest reading or the one with the lowest?
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The one with the highest reading
You have a patient that lost both arms in the war. When measuring his blood pressure, you use his legs. You know that BP in the lower extremities is expected to be ________ than the upper extremities.
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10 mm Hg higher
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Edema in the extremities can be indicative of increased pressure in the _________ of the heart.
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Right Atrium
You feel a vibrating sensation when palpating a patient's pulses. You know this sensation, called a thrill, is caused by...
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Rigidity of the vessel
The angle of Louis is located at the _____ rib and can be used as a landmark to locate cardiac structures underneath.
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2nd rib (it is the notch felt just below the suprasternal notch)
Splinter hemorrhages can be indicative of what cardiac condition?
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Infective endocarditis
Venous or Arterial Ulcer? Necrotic, crater like lesion usually found on the lower leg at the medial malleolus, heals slowly
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Venous
Venous or Arterial Ulcer? Pale, ischemic base, well-defined edges, usually found on the toes, heels or lateral malleoli
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Arterial
What disease states can a bounding pulse be found with?
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Hyperthyroidism, anemia, fever
What conditions should you suspect in a patient with a thready, weak pulse? (4)
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Blood loss, decreased cardiac output, aortic valve disease or PAD
Pulsus alternans is an assessment finding characterized by a regular pulse rhythm with varied strength at each beat. It is a sign of...
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Heart failure
The ______ sign is a test used to diagnose a thrombophlebitis.
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The Homan's sign
Which heart sound can be a clue of left side ventricular failure, volume overload, mitral, tricuspid or aortic regurgitation or hypertension?
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S3-heard in early diastole, a galloping sound
  
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