Campus Collusion
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Cardiovascular SystemMedical Surgical Nursing

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Question Answer
You have a 20 year old male in your clinic. You are assessing his cardiac sounds and hear an S3. Is this a normal finding?
Show Answer
It can be normal in young adults, it is pathologic when there is mitral valve regurgitation or left ventricular failure
You have a 75 year old male in your clinic. You are assessing his cardiac sounds and hear an S3. Is this a normal finding?
Show Answer
No, this can be indicative of left ventricular failure or mitral valve regurgitation
You have a 75 year old male in your clinic. You are assessing his cardiac sounds and hear an S4. Is this a normal finding?
Show Answer
It can be a normal finding in older adults. It is pathologic when the patient has CAD, cardiomyopathy, left ventricular hypertrophy, or aortic stenosis.
You have a 20 year old male in your clinic. You are assessing his cardiac sounds and hear an S4. Is this a normal finding?
Show Answer
No. This can be indicative of aortic stenosis, left ventricular hypertrophy, CAD or cardiomyopathy.
_____ is a biochemical blood marker specific to cardiac tissue that is elevated within 4-6 hours. Measuring the level can diagnose myocardial injury and necrosis.
Show Answer
CK-MB, creatine kinase MB
_________ is a myocardial muscle protein that is released when damage or necrosis occurs. It is detectable within one hour.
Show Answer
Troponin T & I
CK-MB levels rise ______ hours after symptom onset, peak in _____ hours, and return to baseline within ________.
Show Answer
Rise in 4-6 hours, peak in 18-24 hours and return to baseline in three days
Troponin T and I levels are detectable within ______ of myocardial injury, have high specificity within _______ hours, and peaks in _______.
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Detectable within 1 hour, specific in 3-6 hours and peaks in 12 hours.
Myoglobin is released when there's an injury to cardiac muscle. Why is it not a good indicator of a heart attack/MI?
Show Answer
It elevates 30-60 minutes after injury and declines rapidly within 7 hours. It isn't specific to the heart (it's also in skeletal muscle) and it isn't elevated very long.
______ are the major storage form of lipids in the body and make up approximately 95% of fatty tissue.
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Triglycerides
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An elevation in HDL or LDL has a strong link to coronary artery disease?
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LDL (I always think Lethal-DL) so I remember
_______ is an apolipoprotein that has been associated with the progression of atherosclerosis and has been found to have thrombogenic properties that increase the risk of clotting at the site of intravascular lesions.
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Lp(a)
Lp(a) is an apolipoprotein that is the major LDL or HDL protein?
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HDL
Which part of the vascular system is responsible for homeostasis?
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The endothelial layer of the arteries
The ______ test detects elevations of Lp-PLA2 which are produced by macrophages and directly contributes to atherosclerosis.
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PLAC
_______ is a protein that is produced by the liver that has been found to be more predictive than LDL of cardiac events.
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CRP (C-reactive protein)
______ is an amino acid that is produced during catabolism. Elevated levels have been identified as a predictor of CAD, thromboembolism and stroke, therefore people with a familial disposition for cardiac disease should have it regularly measured.
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Homocysteine (Hcy)
ANP is a natriuretic Peptide that originates from the ________. BNP originates from the _________.
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ANP-atriums, BNP-Ventricles
Where does C-type natriuretic peptides originate from?
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The endothelial and renal epithelial cells
What are the disadvantages of a Transtelephonic Event Recorder?
Show Answer
If the cardiac event is short, it may be missed while the patient puts the monitor on and dials the telephone number to transmit the info, or if the patient passes out they may be physically unable to send the info
What types of medications should be withheld at least 24 hours prior to exercise or stress testing?
Show Answer
Beta adrenergic blockers (they blunt the heart rate)
  
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