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Cardiovascular SystemMedical Surgical Nursing

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Question Answer
Aminophylline (Phyllocontin) is given to a patients to reduce or eliminate adverse side effects (like bronchospasm) to chemical agents given for a _______ test.
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Stress
______ is a test sensitive enough to detect small MIs not apparent on SPECT imaging. It is not widely used because of size and access issues.
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MRI
______ is used to visualize vascular occlusive disease and abdominal aortic aneurysms. The contrast material used is non-iodine based.
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MRA (Magnetic Resonance Angiography)
_______ is a scan used to visualize calcium deposits in the coronary arteries. It is limited by the constantly moving heart and the need to hold breaths for each image.
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CT scan
_______ is a scan used to visualize calcium deposits in the coronary arteries and heart valves. It is non-invasive and studies have shown it to be predictive of cardiac events.
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Electron Beam CT scan (EBCT)
You are watching a cardiac catheterization and note that the physician is inserting the catheter into an arm vein (basilic or cephalic). You know he will be looking at the right or left side of the heart?
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Right side (he can also go in through the femoral leg vein)
You are watching a cardiac catheterization and note that the physician is inserting the catheter into the femoral artery. You know he will be looking at the right or left side of the heart?
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Left, entry is through the femoral or brachial artery
__________ can be used to measure intracardiac pressures, O2 and CO2 levels as well as cardiac output and ejection fraction.
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Cardiac Catheterization
What is a pulmonary artery wedge and what/when is it used?
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It is the placement of a cardiac catheter in the pulmonary artery to determine function of the left side of the heart. This can often be done using a Swan-Ganz catheter.
_______ is an invasive procedure used to provide a cross-sectional view of the arterial walls of the coronary arteries via a miniature transducer that is inserted through a peripheral artery and advanced to an area in question. It is used to diagnose the severity of CAD.
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Intracoronary Ultrasound (ICUS) or Intravascular Ultrasound (IVUS). It is done with a coronary angiography
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_______ is the direct observation and manipulation of electrical activity of the heart using electrodes placed inside the cardiac chambers. It is used to identify the cause of dysrhythmias.
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Electrophysiologic Study (EPS)
Central Venous Pressure (CVP) is a type of hemodynamic monitoring is a measurement of preload and can be used to monitor pressure in the ________.
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Right Atrium
What concentration of CK-MB is highly indicative of an MI?
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Concentrations greater than 5% if total CK
What level of Troponin (cTnI) is indicative of an MI?
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Greater than 2.3 ng/ml
Myoglobin levels increase after an MI. They are most diagnostic if measured within ______ of onset of chest pain.
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12 hours
What level of C-Reactive protein (CRP) is considered a high risk level for a cardiac event?
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Greater than 3mg/L (Moderate is 1-3)
How is hyperhomocysteinemia treated if it is non-cardiac related?
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Folic acid, B6 and B12 supplements (it is usually due to a dietary deficiency)
______ elevation in the blood can differentiate if the cause of dyspnea is cardiac or respiratory.
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BNP
What diagnostic study of cardiac function can be temporarily impacted by an infusion of Natrecor?
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BNP (it elevates it)
Which serum lipids require fasting for at least 12 hours prior to assessment for an accurate measurement?
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Triglycerides and lipoproteins (and no alcohol for 24 hours prior)
______provides a recording of ECG rhythms for 24-48 hours and is correlated with a patient diary for the same time period.
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Holter monitoring
  
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