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HypertensionMedical Surgical Nursing

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What is the definition of hypertension?
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Persistent systolic pressure above 140, diastolic above 90, OR current use of antihypertensive meds
What disease states have been linked to hypertension? (5)
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Cardiovascular disease, MI, heart failure, stroke and renal disease
What is pre-hypertension?
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A persistent SBP of 120-139 or DBP of 80-89
_______ is the force exerted by blood against the walls of the blood vessel.
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Blood pressure
_______ is the force opposing movement of blood within the blood vessels.
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Systemic Vascular Resistance (SVR)
What is the major determinant of systemic vascular resistance?
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The radius of small arteries and arterioles
What systems are involved in the short term regulation of blood pressure?
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SNS and vascular epithelium
At what age does hypertension become more common in women than men?
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55
Men with hypertension are more likely to suffer strokes or MI?
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MI
Women with hypertension are more likely to suffer strokes or MI?
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Strokes
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Why do African Americans not respond as well to angiotensin inhibitors used to treat hypertension?
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They produce less renin
Who has a higher incidence of hypertension, African American women or men?
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Women (more than 75% over 75 have it)
What impact does the SNS have when a decrease in arterial pressure is detected?
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Increased HR, increased contractility, widespread vasoconstriction in peripheral arterioles, and stimulates the kidneys to release renin. All work to raise arterial pressure by increasing CO and SV.
The PNS decreases the heart rate via the _______ nerve.
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Vagus
Where are the receptors located that are activated by norepinephrine?
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The SA node, myocardium, and vascular smooth muscle
______ receptors are located in the peripheral vasculature and cause constriction when stimulated by norepinephrine.
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Alpha adrenergic receptors
How do beta 1 adrenergic receptors in the heart respond to norepinephrine?
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Increased heart rate (chronotropic), increased force of contraction (inotropic) and increased conduction speed
Beta 2 Adrenergic receptors are activated primarily by epinephrine released by the _______ and respond with vasodilation.
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Adrenal medulla
Which part of the brain is the control center for BP regulation?
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The vasomotor center in the medulla
Which SNS receptors, when stimulated, cause vasoconstriction?
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Alpha 1, Alpha 2, and Beta 1
  
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