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CAD and ACSMedical Surgical Nursing

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Question Answer
________ is a drug used to treat chronic angina that prolongs the QT interval. For this reason it should only be used after other meds have been unsuccessful and in conjunction with beta blockers, nitrates or amlodipine.
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Ranolazine
What tests are usually done to get an initial diagnosis of CAD?
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Chest x-ray to look for enlargements, ECG, echocardiogram, exercise stress testing, pharmacological nuclear imaging and angiography
Exercise stress testing can commonly have false positives, especially with what gender?
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Women
When can an exercise stress test produce a false negative?
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If the maximal point/HR isn't achieved during the test, or if only one coronary artery is involved
During this procedure, a catheter equipped with an inflatable balloon tip is inserted into an artery and inflated to compress a plaque and dilate a vessel...
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Coronary revascularization with a percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). This type is specifically a balloon angioplasty
What is usually the first symptom of ACS in women?
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Fatigue
What causes chronic stable angina?
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Myocardial ischemia, usually secondary to CAD
What causes Prinzmetals Angina?
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Coronary vasospasm
What causes unstable angina?
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A rupture of a thickened plaque that exposes the thrombogenic surface
What type of angina? Episodic. Lasts 5-15 minutes. Provoked by exertion. Relieved with rest.
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Chronic stable angina
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What type of angina? Occurs primarily at rest, triggered by smoking, may occur with or without CAD.
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Prinzmetals angina
What type of angina? New-onset, increasing frequency, duration or intensity, occurs at rest or with minimal exertion, pain is non-responsive to nitrates.
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Unstable angina
What is the predominant side effect of nitrates?
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Headaches from the vascular dilation (including cerebral blood vessels)
There's a mnemonic to guide the treatment of angina: ABCDEF. What does it stand for?
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A=antiplatelet agent, antianginal therapy and ACE inhibitor B=Beta adrenergic blocker, blood pressure C=Cigarette smoking, Cholesterol D=Diet, Diabetes E=Education, exercise F=Flu vaccination
How are the reservoir and matrix systems for delivery nitrates different from sublingual tablets and ointments?
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They are systems that allow delivery of nitrates over 24 hours, requiring one dose daily
In general, patients with ________ should not be prescribed beta adrenergic medications.
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Asthma
When beta adrenergic blockers are contraindicated, what type of drugs are typically prescribed?
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Calcium channel blockers (Procardia, Calan, Cardizem, Cardene)
What type of drugs are usually used to treat Prinzmetals Angina?
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Calcium Channel Blockers
What is a chest X-ray used to detect in patients suspected of having CAD?
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Cardiac enlargement, aortic calcifications, or pulmonary congestion
What specifically is looked at during an exercise stress test in order to uncover the possibility of CAD?
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The ST segment and T wave changes in such a way that it can indirectly identify problems in coronary artery perfusion
What medications are typically prescribed immediately after an intracoronary stent has been placed during an angioplasty?
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Oral antiplatelet medications like aspirin or Clopidogrel and Aggrastat (used to prevent restenosis)
  
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