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What is the most common cause of death of a patient experiencing an MI prior to reaching the hospital?
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Dysrhythmias
Which heart problems are the most likely to cause life threatening dysrhythmias?
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Heart failure, anterior wall infarction, shock
Which type of dysrhythmia is the most common cause of sudden cardiac death?
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Ventricular fibrillation
When is a patient most likely to experience ventricular fibrillation from an MI?
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About 4 hours after the onset of symptoms, if not treated in time, they will die.
What are the possible signs and symptoms of heart failure?
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Dyspnea, restlessness, agitation, slight tachycardia, pulmonary congestion, S3 or S4 sounds, crackles, JVD (if right sided).
_________ is a complication of MI that occurs when the pumping power of the heart has diminished.
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Heart failure
________ occurs when inadequate oxygen and nutrients are supplied to the tissues because of severe left ventricular failure. It has a high mortality rate.
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Cardiogenic Shock
Auscultation a systolic murmur at the cardiac apex that radiates to the axilla is a sign that _______ dysfunction has resulted from cardiac ischemia.
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Papillary muscle
_________ causes mitral valve regurgitation increasing the volume of blood in the left atrium, aggravating the left ventricle and decreasing cardiac output.
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Papillary muscle dysfunction
How is a papillary muscle dysfunction typically treated?
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Nitroprusside and/or IABP therapy, with immediate open-heart surgery to replace the mitral valve
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What are the s/s of papillary muscle dysfunction?
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Development of a murmur, dyspnea, pulmonary edema, decreased CO
________ results when the infarcted myocardial wall becomes thinned and bulges out during contraction.
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Ventricular aneurysm
_______ is a common complication of an MI that may occur 2-3 days later and causes cardiac compression, decreased ventricular filling and emptying, and can lead to heart failure.
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Acute pericarditis
What are the common s/s of acute pericarditis?
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Chest pain (different than the MI chest pain) that is aggravated by inspiration, coughing, and upper body movement. Pain may be relieved by sitting forward (like tripod). Possible friction rub, fever
Dressler syndrome is _____________ that develops 4-6 weeks after an MI or open heart surgery.
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Pericarditis with effusion and fever
What are common s/s of Dressler's syndrome?
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Pericardial pain, fever, arthlagia, friction rub, pleural effusion, elevated WBC and Sedimentation rate.
What are the two primary diagnostic studies used to determine whether a patient is experiencing an MI or UA?
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an ECG and serum cardiac markers
What is the most characteristic difference between NSTEMI/UA and STEMI?
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STEMI develops a pathologic Q wave, whereas UA/NSTEMI does not
If an initial ECG is nondiagnostic for a STEMI or NSTEMI for a patient in the emergency room, how frequently should new ECGs be done to ensure there's no MI?
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Every 2-4 hours
Which serum cardiac markers (2) are typically measured to ascertain the extent of damage from an MI?
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Creatinine Kinase (CK) and troponin
Which cardiac marker hangs around the longest after an MI?
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Troponin, it stays elevated for up to 14 days
  
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