Campus Collusion
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Inflammatory and Structural Heart DisordersMedical Surgical Nursing

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How long is a patient with IE typically on antibiotic therapy for?
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4-6 weeks
________ pericarditis occurs within the initial 48-72 hours after an MI.
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Acute
_________ is pericarditis that appears 4-6 weeks after an MI.
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Dressler's syndrome
What are some ways pericarditis can be differentiated from an acute MI?
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Pericardial friction rub (timed with pulse), pain that is located in the trapezius muscle (shoulders and upper back)
What are the two major complications of pericarditis?
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Cardiac tamponade and pericardial effusion
________ is a complication of pericarditis that is characterized by the development of cough, dyspnea, tachypnea, hiccups, hoarseness and distant, muffled heart sounds with a normal BP.
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Pericardial effusion
_______ develops from a pericardial effusion from the pressure exerted as fluid builds. A patient will feel chest pain, and exhibit restlessness, confusion or anxiety. Often the patient will have tachypnea, tachycardia, distended neck veins and significant pulsus paradoxus.
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Cardiac tamponade
How is pulsus paradoxus measured?
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By taking the systolic pressure heard on expiration and subtracting the measurement at which an entire respiratory cycle can be heard. A difference greater than 10 mm Hg is suggestive of cardiac tamponade
What are the differences in an ST segment on an ECG that can help diagnose whether a client's chest pain is pericarditis or an MI?
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MI-ST segment has localized changes Pericarditis-ST segment has diffuse changes
_________ is a condition that usually begins with an initial episode of acute pericarditis and is characterized by fibrin deposition from an undiagnosed pericardial effusion.
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Chronic constrictive pericarditis
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What condition causes a pericardial knock and what is it?
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Chronic constrictive pericarditis, a pericardial knock is a loud early diastolic sound heard on the left sternal border
How is chronic constrictive pericarditis usually treated?
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Pericardiectomy
How is a case of myocarditis diagnosed?
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An endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) from the right ventricle using an instrument called a bioptome
When is an endomyocardial biopsy most successful at diagnosing myocarditis?
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Within 6 weeks of the onset of symptoms
_________ is an inflammatory disease of the heart that involves all layers (endocardium, myocardium, and pericardium).
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Rheumatic fever
When does Acute Rheumatic Fever typically develop?
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2-3 weeks after a Group A Strep infection
What systems/structures are affected by Acute Rheumatic fever (ARF)?
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Heart, joints, CNS and skin
What is rheumatic pancarditis?
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A term used to reflect the infection of all layers of the heart
How is the endocardium affected by rheumatic fever?
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Vegetation develops on the valve leaflets leading to stenosis or regurgitation (mostly the mitral and aortic valves)
How is the myocardium impacted by acute rheumatic fever?
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Fibrous, collagen fiber nodules develop that causes scar tissue to form (Aschoff's bodies)
What are the three signs indicative of carditis?
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-development of an aortic or mitral valve murmur or stenosis -cardiac enlargement and heart failure secondary to myocarditis -pericarditis resulting in muffled heart sounds, chest pain, pericardial friction rub or pleural effusion
  
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