Campus Collusion
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Inflammatory and Structural Heart DisordersMedical Surgical Nursing

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Question Answer
What are the three signs indicative of carditis?
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-development of an aortic or mitral valve murmur or stenosis -cardiac enlargement and heart failure secondary to myocarditis -pericarditis resulting in muffled heart sounds, chest pain, pericardial friction rub or pleural effusion
What joints are typically affected by rheumatic fever?
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Larger ones like the knees, elbows, ankles and wrists
When does Chorea develop typically develop when caused by Rheumatic Fever?
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Several months after the initial infection
What is erythema marginatum?
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A rash associated with ARF, they are bright pink, macular lesions that appear on the trunk and extremities
What ECG change might occur due to rheumatic fever?
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Prolongation of the PR interval due to delayed AV conduction
How is a secondary recurrence of rheumatic fever usually prevented?
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Monthly injections of long-lasting penicillin for 5 years if over 18 and there was no carditis, otherwise indefinitely
Stenosis affects the _______ flow of blood, causing an increased pressure gradient. Regurgitation is the _______ flow of blood from weakened leaflets.
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Stenosis-forward flow Regurgitation-backward flow
What are the two most common valvular disorders in the elderly?
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Mitral regurgitation and aortic stenosis
Which valvular heart disease? Dyspnea on exertion, hemoptysis, fatigue, palpitations, loud S1, diastolic murmur, atrial fibrillation
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Mitral valve stenosis
What are the most common causes of mitral stenosis?
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Rheumatic heart disease, RA or SLE, infective endocarditis
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Which valvular heart disease? Fulminating pulmonary edema, rapidly developing shock, new systolic murmur
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Acute mitral valve regurgitation
Which valvular heart disease? Weakness, fatigue, exertional dyspnea, palpitations, S3 gallop, holosystolic or pansystolic murmur
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Chronic Mitral Valve Regurgitation
Which valvular heart disease? Palpitations, dyspnea, chest pain, activity intolerance, syncope, midsystolic click, late or holosystolic murmur
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Mitral valve prolapse
Which valvular heart disease? Angina, syncope, dyspnea on exertion, heart failure, normal or soft S1, systolic crescendo-decrescendo murmur, prominent S4
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Aortic valve stenosis
Which valvular heart disease? Acute, profound dyspnea, chest pain, left ventricular failure and shock
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Acute aortic valve regurgitation
Which valvular heart disease? Fatigue, exertional dyspnea, orthopnea, PND, water-hammer pulse, heaving precordial impulse, diminished or absent S1, S3 or S4, soft decrescendo diastolic murmur, Austin-Flint murmur, systolic ejection click
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Chronic aortic valve regurgitation
Which valvular heart disease? Peripheral edema, ascites, hepatomegaly, diastolic, low-pitched decrescendo murmur with increased intensity during inspiration
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Tricuspid stenosis
Which valvular heart disease? Fatigue, loud midsystolic murmur
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Pulmonic stenosis
What is the most common valvular abnormality in the US?
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Mitral Valve Prolapse
What are the most common causes of aortic stenosis?
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Congenital, rheumatic fever or senile fibrocalcific degeneration
How do you know if aortic stenosis is caused by rheumatic heart disease?
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It is always accompanied by mitral valve disease.
  
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