Campus Collusion
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Inflammatory and Structural Heart DisordersMedical Surgical Nursing

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How do you know if aortic stenosis is caused by rheumatic heart disease?
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It is always accompanied by mitral valve disease.
What are the classic triad of symptoms associated with aortic stenosis?
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Angina, syncope, and exertional dyspnea (reflecting left ventricular failure)
What conditions can cause chronic aortic regurgitation?
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Rheumatic heart disease, congenital bicuspid aortic valve, syphilis, Reiter's syndrome, ankylosing spondylitis or other rheumatic disease
Who is most likely to develop a tricuspid valve stenosis?
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Someone who had rheumatic fever, IV drug abuser, or was treated with a Dopamine agonist like cabergoline/Dostinex
_______ stenosis is almost always congenital and results in increased pressure in the right ventricle
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Pulmonic stenosis
________ is a procedure used to treat stenosed valves by splitting open fused commissures. A balloon-tipped catheter is threaded through the femoral artery or vein into the stenosed valve. The balloon (usually hour glass shaped) is inflated to separate the valve leaflets.
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Percutaneous Transluminal Balloon Valvuloplasty (PTBV)
Which type of stenosis is typically NOT treated with PTBV (Percutaneous Transluminal Balloon Valvuloplasty)?
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Aortic stenosis
Valve repair is often used to repair which two types of valvular heart disease?
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Tricuspid and mitral valves
________ is the surgical treatment of choice for patients with pure mitral stenosis. It involves removal of thrombi from the atrium, excision of the left atrial appendage, commissure incision, separation of fused chordae tendineae, splitting of papillary muscle and debriding of calcifications.
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Commissurotomy
______ involves valve repair by suturing torn leaflets, chordae tendineae, or papillary muscles.
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Valvuloplasty
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________ is a procedure used in cases of mitral or tricuspid regurgitation and entails reconstruction of the annulus with or without prosthetic rings. It can also be used when further reconstruction of valves are needed after a valvuloplasty.
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Annuloplasty
What are the pros and cons of mechanical valves for valve replacement?
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Pros: last longer than biologic valves Cons: increased thromboembolism risk requiring long term anticoagulant therapy
What are the pros and cons of biologic valves for valve replacement?
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Pros: not thrombogenic Cons: less durable due to tendency to calcify, degenerate or stiffen leaflets
What type of valve replacement, mechanical or biologic, would probably be best for an elderly person?
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Biologic, since durability is less of a concern than anticoagulant therapy
What type of replacement valve, mechanical or biologic, would probably be best for a young patient?
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Mechanical, it is more durable
What is the normal INR range for a patient who has had a valve replaced?
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2.5-3.5
Primary cardiomyopathy (CMP) means the cause of the clinical manifestations is...
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Idiopathic/unknown
What is the most common type of cardiomyopathy (CMP)?
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Dilated
This type of cardiomyopathy is most common in middle aged African American men and is characterized by a diffuse inflammation and rapid degeneration of myocardial fibers. The cardiac chambers are enlarged but systolic function is impaired resulting in stasis of blood in the left ventricle...
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Dilation Cardiomyopathy
What is the usual tool used for a diagnosis of dilated cardiomyopathy?
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Doppler echocardiogram
Which type of cardiomyopathy presents with moderate to marked cardiomegaly?
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Dilated
  
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