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Inflammatory and Structural Heart DisordersMedical Surgical Nursing

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Which type of cardiomyopathy presents with moderate to marked cardiomegaly?
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Dilated
Which type of cardiomyopathy causes outflow obstruction?
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Hypertrophic
What are the major monitoring concerns for a patient with dilated cardiomyopathy?
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Heart failure, embolization dysrhythmias and response to drugs
_______ cardiomyopathy is characterized by an asymmetric left ventricular enlargement without ventricular dilation.
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Hypertrophic
Who is most susceptible to developing hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM)?
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Men aged 30-40, usually African American
What are the 4 defining characteristics of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM)?
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-Ventricular hypertrophy, -Forceful, rapid contractions of the left ventricle, -impaired diastole, -obstruction of aortic outflow (in some cases)
_________ is the most common cause of sudden cardiac death in young people, and often occurs in athletic individuals.
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Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
What are the specific (not fatigue, syncope, etc.) signs that a person has hypertrophic cardiomyopathy?
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A displaced (laterally) apical impulse, ST-T wave abnormalities, prominent Q waves, maybe an S4 heart sound
What type of cardiomyopathy is a ventriculotomy and myectomy used to treat?
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Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, the ventricular muscle is resected and the septal muscle is incised to reduce outflow obstruction
________ is a procedure that consists of administering alcohol into the first septal artery branching off the left anterior descending artery causing ischemia and septal wall infarction. Ablation of the septal wall is then performed.
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Percutaneous transluminal septal myocardial ablation (PTSMA)
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Which type of cardiomyopathy is Percutaneous transluminal septal myocardial ablation (PTSMA) used to treat?
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Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM)
What are the teaching points a nurse should cover with a patient with a new diagnosis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy?
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-limit strenuous activity -stay hydrated -Manage chest pain by resting with the feet elevated to aid venous return -NO vasodilators like nitroglycerin -NO digitalis unless there's atrial fibrillation
________ cardiomyopathy is actually a disease of the heart muscle and is the least common type of cardiomyopathy. It is characterized by ventricles that are resistant to filling and therefore higher diastolic pressures are required to maintain CO.
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Restrictive
What is the most common cause of myocarditis?
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A viral infection
What is the most common cause of aortic valve stenosis in the elderly population?
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Rheumatic fever
  
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