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Blood Cancers and NeutropeniaMedical Surgical Nursing

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Leukine or Prokine (sargramostim)are GM-CSF medications that are given to patients with neutropenia to stimulate the production of _________.
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Monocytes and Neutrophils
What is the most important factor for reducing infections in a neutropenic patient?
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Handwashing by any and all persons who come into contact with the patient.
What are some neutropenic guidelines that are commonly employed for a patient with prolonged neutropenia, like a patient who has had a bone marrow transplant?
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-Avoiding tap water, fresh fruit, fresh vegetables -prophylactic antibiotics and antifungals.
What are some teaching points for a patient with neutropenia to manage their care from home?
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-Wash hands! -Notify the doctor if they develop a fever, chills, or feel hot, develop redness, swelling, discharge, new pain, changes in bowel habits, cough, sore throat or blisters -avoid crowds, avoid raw foods like shushi or Caesar salads, blue chees
You have an elderly patient with neutropenia. They have suddenly become confused and are exhibiting signs of delirium. What illness should you suspect?
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Pneumonia. Elderly individuals often develop delirium instead of a cough due to age related changes.
T/F Patients with neutropenia should not have fresh flowers or plants in their room.
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True. They can introduce pathogens to the patient.
__________ is a group of related hematologic disorders characterized by a change in the quantity and quality of bone marrow elements. Peripheral blood cytopenias and hypercellular bone marrow exhibiting dysplastic changes are hallmark findings.
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Myelodysplastic Syndrome (MDS)
What age group is most likely to be diagnosed with myelodysplastic syndrome?
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People aged 60 and up
Why is myelodysplastic syndrome called a clonal disorder?
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Some bone marrow stem cells continue to function normally while others, called a specific clone, do not
How is myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) different from acute myelogenous anemia (AML)?
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AML dysplastic cells show little maturation whereas MDS cells always display some degree of maturity.
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What is the clinical picture of a patient with myelodysplastic syndrome?
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MDS is usually diagnosed when trying to determine the cause symptoms caused by neutropenia, anemia or thrombocytopenia (fatigue, easy bruising, sensitivity to cold, etc.).
How is MDS (myelodysplastic syndrome) diagnosed?
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Through a bone marrow aspiration and biopsy, accompanied with laboratory studies
What is the first effective treatment for people with MDS?
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Azacitidine (Vidaza), a drug that helps restore normal growth control and differentiation of hematopoietic cells.
High dose chemotherapy and allogeneic HSCT (hematopoietic stem cell transplantation) have been used to treat bone marrow dysfunction associated with MDS but it is a very aggressive treatment. For that reason, it is only recommended if the patient is aged...
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55-60 years old
________ is the general term used to describe a group of malignant disorders affecting the blood and blood-forming tissues of the bone marrow, lymph system and spleen.
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Leukemia
Are children or adults more likely to develop leukemia?
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Adults, they are ten times more likely to have it
There are many potential causes of leukemia. Name the general possibilities...
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genetics, chemical insults, radiation, viruses, and immunologic deficiencies.
What careers or exposures have been identified with an increased risk of developing leukemias?
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There has been an increased incidence identified in radiologists, persons who have lived nuclear bomb test sites, near nuclear reactor accidents, survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings, in persons previously treated with chemo or radiation.
________ leukemia has been identified as a type caused by a virus. It is most prevalent in Japan, parts of the Caribbean and central Africa.
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Adult T-cell
________ leukemias are characterized by clonal proliferation of immature hematopoietic cells, followed by cellular replication and expansion of that malignant clone.
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Acute
_______ leukemias involve more mature forms of WBCs and disease onset is gradual.
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Chronic
  
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