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CancerMedical Surgical Nursing

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What is clonal proliferation/clonal expansion?
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A selective advantage that allows a mutated cell to multiply faster than a normal one.
The median age of diagnosis of cancer is _______.
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67
Cells that have lost all differentiation and function are _______.
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anaplastic
What are the limitations of tumor markers?
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Not specific/definitive; don't always detect early disease states; and don't diagnose, just monitor treatment.
What stage? Larger, more invasive within primary organ site...
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T2
What stage? Small, minimally invasive within primary organ site...
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T1
Tis
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In situ, non invasive
Staging: N=
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lymph node involvement
Staging: M=
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distant metastasis presence
What stage? Very large and/or very invasive. Spread to other organs...
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T4
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Destruction of bone by a tumor causes...
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Hypercalcemia
What is the lethal characteristic of cancer?
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It's ability to metastasize.
An abnormal growth...
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tumor/neoplasm
Angiogenesis is a process that happens with _______ and _______ tumors.
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benign and malignant
N0 = ___, N1 = ___, N2 = ___ and N3 = ____?
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N0 = no lymph involvement, N1 = regional lymph involvement, N2 = extensive regional lymph involvement, and N3 = distant lymph node involvement.
What stage? No lymph node involvement...
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N0
Proto-oncogens are _______ cells that are a communicator in the _______ process of cells.
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Proto-oncogens: normal; communicator in the growth process
What stage? Larger, more invasive beyond margins of primary organ site...
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T3
Staging: T=
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The size and/or extent of invasion.
Oncogenes are _______, it only takes one hit for expression.
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dominant
What is staging and grading?
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Evaluation: size of tumor, degree of invasion, extent of spread and differentiation of cells.
  
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