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CancerMedical Surgical Nursing

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What is staging and grading?
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Evaluation: size of tumor, degree of invasion, extent of spread and differentiation of cells.
What is clonal proliferation?
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The ability to proliferate due to a mutation that gives a cell the ability to multiply quicker than it's neighbor.
Cancer cells obtain the ability to produce _______, giving them immortality .
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telomerase
What stage? Lymph involvement that is distant...
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N3
A _______ loss of tumor suppressor genes must occur in order for a defect to be expressed.
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homozygous
Most tumor makers are _______.
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proteins: hormones, enzymes and genes.
What are the top 3 sites of new cancer cases in men?
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Prostate; lung; and colon/rectum.
P53, APC, BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations are examples of _______ failure.
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tumor suppressor genes
What is carcinoma in situ?
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Preinvasive epithelial tumors of glandular or squamous cell origin. *have not broken through the basement membranes of the epithelium.
What are the different types of tumor markers?
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hormones, enzymes, genes, antigens, and antibodies.
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What stage? Regional lymph node involvement...
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N1
Genes whose protein products can directly or indirectly prevent cell division or lead to apoptosis...
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Tumor Suppressor Genes
Viruses almost always cause a _______ mutation.
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proto-oncogen
More than 1/2 of all human tumors are associated with defects in the _______ gene.
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P53
What is the pathology path from normal cells to metastatic cancer cells?
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Normal to Dysplasia to In situ neoplasm to Invasive neoplasm to Metastatic cancer.
Of the functional cysts, this type is more painful...
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corpus luteum cyst
Malignant tumors are _______, benign tumors are not.
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invasive
How can a benign tumor be harmful?
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Puts mechanical pressure on surrounding tissue or organs, causing problems with those structures.
What is invasiveness ?
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The ability of a tumor to penetrate basal membranes.
When is the best time to do a breast self-exam?
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2 weeks after period
What are the major differences between benign and malignant tumors?
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Benign: well encapsulated, well differentiated, grows slowly, not invasive, low mitotic index, and no metastasis. Malignant: lack of capsule, lack of differentiation, grows quickly, invasive, high mitotic index, metastasizes.
  
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