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CancerMedical Surgical Nursing

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What are the major differences between benign and malignant tumors?
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Benign: well encapsulated, well differentiated, grows slowly, not invasive, low mitotic index, and no metastasis. Malignant: lack of capsule, lack of differentiation, grows quickly, invasive, high mitotic index, metastasizes.
What is direct or continuous metastasis?
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Extension of cancer into surrounding tissue without breaking away.
If a mutation occurs in _______ cells, it is not passed on to children.
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somatic
Infrequent menses that occurs greater than 35 days apart (longer than 6-7 weeks). Periods are less than 6 months apart...
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Oligomenorrhea (greater than 6 months = amenorrhea)
How is syphilis transmitted?
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Sex, saliva and placenta.
What are the 6 characteristics of malignant tumors?
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Grows rapidly, not encapsulated, invasive, poorly differentiated, increased mitotic index, and can metatastisize.
If a woman has a uterus, she must have an HRT with...
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progesterone (not just estrogen)
Chlamydia is transmitted via...
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oral, anal or vaginal contact
Inflammation of the epididymus...
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epididymitis (often associated with STD's like gonorrhea and chlamydia)
In the post menopausal age group, the most common cause of dysfunctional uterine bleeding is...
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malignancies
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A stage _______ pressure ulcer does not blanche.
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One (extra precautions should be put in place)
What are the leading sites of new cancer cases in women?
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Breast, lung and colon & rectum.
What are malignant tumors of epithelial origin called?
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Carcinomas
ER _______ cancers are dependent on estrogen for growth.
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ER+
What are the most common causes of PID?
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Gonorrhea and Chlamydia
_______ to _______ contact transmits HPV.
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Skin to skin
More times than not, the presenting symptoms of cancer is _______.
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unexplained weight loss
What is paraneoplastic syndrome?
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Unexplained things that are happening because of the cancer. Random symptoms like an increase in hormone levels.
_______ are more likely to die of cancer than _______.
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Men than women
_______ is a late sign of caner.
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Pain
What is neoplasia?
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The abnormal uncontrolled growth of useless cells. Can refer to benign or malignant growths.
  
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