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What is neoplasia?
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The abnormal uncontrolled growth of useless cells. Can refer to benign or malignant growths.
What are the 6 characteristics of benign tumors?
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Grow slowly, well defined capsule, not invasive, well differentiated, low mitotic index, and don't metastasize.
The _______ the turnover of cells, the more likely it is for a mutation to be created and allowed to proliferate.
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higher/more frequent
M0 = ___ and M1 = ___
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M0 = no distant metastasis and M1 = distant metastisis.
_______ is the preferential growth of cancerous cells in certain organs.
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Organ tropism
This tumor suppressor gene is flawed in over 53% of cancers:
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P53
_______ is the term for new and pre-existing cases for people alive on a certain date.
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Prevalence
Grading: I = ___, II = ___, III = ___, and IV = ___.
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I = well differentiated, II = moderately differentiated, III = poorly differentiated, IV = nearly anaplastic.
T1 = ___, T2 = ___, T3 = ___, and T4 = ___
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T1 = small, minimally invasive within primary organ site. T2 = larger, more invasive within primary organ site. T3 = larger, and/or invasive beyond margins of primary organ site. T4 = very large, and/or very invasive. Spread to other organs.
Liver and germ cell tumors secrete _______ into the blood. This is used as a tumor marker.
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AFP
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CEA is a tumor marker for...
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colon; liver; pancreas; lung; breast; and others...
ERBB is associated with what cancers?
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squamous cell carcinoma; breast; cervix; lung; and pancreas.
Stage II breast cancer...
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tumor is 2-5 cm; cancer is in nodes on same side affected breast.
A submucosal leiomyoma is located...
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the innermost layer of the uterine wall.
Stage IIIa breast cancer...
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tumor over 5 cm or significant lymph node involvement. Nodes clump together or stick to surrounding tissue.
Which uterine cancer causes the most deaths?
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ovarian
The most common mutations conferring resistance to apoptosis occur in the _______ gene.
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P53
What are the 7 risk factors for cervical cancer?
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HPV; sex before 16; increased number of partners; smoking; poor nutrition; + family history; and DES in utero.
What are risk factors of ovarian cancer?
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long menstrual history; post menopause; + family history; no kids; high fat diet; and HRT.
What is the most common symptom of endometrial cancer?
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bleeding (after menopause)
What are the risk factors for endometrial cancer?
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obesity; high fat diet; no babies; white; over 40; + family history; diabetes; history of breast or ovarian cancer; and HRT.
  
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