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CancerMedical Surgical Nursing

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What are the risk factors for endometrial cancer?
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obesity; high fat diet; no babies; white; over 40; + family history; diabetes; history of breast or ovarian cancer; and HRT.
Symptoms not explained by local or distant tumor spread or hormone release...
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Paraneoplastic Syndrome
...related to sleep disturbance, malnutrition, activity level and psychosocial factors...
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Fatigue
Anorexia, early satiety, weight loss, anemia, asthenia, taste alterations, and altered metabolism are all components of...
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the syndrome of cachexia.
_______ refers to the problems that occur due to a disease.
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Morbidity
What are the signs and symptoms of a Pheochromocytoma- catecholamine producing tumor?
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difficult to treat hypertension; increased heart rate; severe headaches; tachycardia; profuse diaphoresis; flushing; sweating; weight loss; hyperglycemia; heart failure if severe; and apprehension.
What are signs and symptoms of a Wilm tumor?
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abdominal swelling; hematuria; vague abdominal pain; HTN; sometimes palpable mass; and weight loss.
Bence-Jones protein is a tumor marker for _______.
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multiple myeloma
Quantitative HcG can indicate _______. It is a _______ tumor marker.
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gestational trophoblastic disease; hormonal
What are the 3 distinct phenotypes of cancer cells that aren't associated with normal cells?
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indefinite proliferative life span; loss of response to normal regulators of cell growth; and ability to leave a tumor and invade other cells/tissues at any location in the body.
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What is autocrine stimulation?
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The process where cancer secretes growth factor to further stimulate it's own growth.
Stage 0 breast cancer...
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non-invasive; LCIS and DCIS
The most common _______ tumor marker is PSA. It is indicative of _______ cancer.
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PSA = antigen tumor marker; indicative of prostate cancer (The higher the PSA, the higher correlation to cancer).
What needs to happen in order for a tumor to invade?
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decreased cell to cell adhesion; migration; mechanical pressure on basement membrane, pushes on tissue; secretion of lytic enzymes, breaks thru; and anchorage independence, allowing proliferation.
What components of inflammation may contribute to cancer and why?
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cytokines: in chronic inflammation cytokines promotes proliferation. inflammatory cells: release reactive molecules that promote mutations and blocks DNA repair.
_______ gene has been mapped to chromosome 17. If it mutates, it can no longer act as the stop signal for cell division.
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P53
Describe the process of angiogenesis...
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The tumor gets too big for it's blood supply (lack of oxygen); Endothelial GF create endothelial cells that create a capillary tube; and Capillary tubes emanate from the arterioles and venules, creating blood supply to tumor.
A subserous leiomyoma is located...
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on the outside layer of the uterine wall.
What are signs and symptoms of leiomyomas?
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can be asymptomatic; menorrhagia or metromenorrhagia; excessive bleeding, cramping; and increased risk of anemia. Signs and Symptoms depend on location.
_______ is one of the leading causes of lung cancer that isn't smoking related.
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Radon
A hereditary cancer is usually the result of a _______.
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tumor suppressor gene defect (not oncogens)
  
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