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CancerMedical Surgical Nursing

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A hereditary cancer is usually the result of a _______.
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tumor suppressor gene defect (not oncogens)
A loss of function in tumor suppression genes causes _______.
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defective proteins that don't suppress cell growth; doesn't QC for bad cells, allowing for clonal proliferation.
ERBB2 is associated with...
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adenocarcinomas of: breast, stomach, ovary, colon, pancreas, lung, kidney, and salivary gland.
Stage I breast cancer...
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invasive, tumor up to 2 cm, and no lymph node involvement.
Where does testicular cancer arise from?
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The germ cells that create the spermatozoa.
What are the 10 risk factors for breast cancer?
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age; personal/family history of breast cancer; history of atypical breast hyperplasia; increased breast density; long menstrual history; obesity after menopause; no children/children after 30; 1 or more drinks per day; BRCA1 or 2 mutation; recent use of h
The median age of cancer death is ________.
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73
What Stage? Extensive regional lymph involvement...
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N2
Where do leiomyomas typically develop?
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In the corpus of the uterus.
Explain the metastatic process:
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gain immorality; have unrestricted growth; undergo angiogenesis; break adhesion with neighbor cells; dissolve extracellular matrix; migrate/invade surrounding tissues; travel via circulatory system; invade; survive; and proliferate.
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What are the risk factors of prostate cancer?
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over 50, AA, high fat diet, + family history.
What are the 3 old school teachings about carcinogenesis?
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Initiation, promotion, and progression.
Anaplasia
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the loss of differentiation (increase in nuclear size, pleomorphic, high mitotic index)
What are the signs and symptoms of prostatic cancer?
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Hard nodular prostate. Nocturia; urinary hesitancy, increased frequency; dysuria; impotence; hematuria; and increased PSA.
What are the players in breast cancers?
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BRCA 1 and BRCA 2; P53; ERBB2; HER 1, 2, and 3; estrogen receptors.
Where are the most common locations for Ewing's sarcoma?
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femur, pelvis, humerus
Ewing's sarcoma involves extensive metastasis to...
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lungs, other bones, bone marrow, liver and spleen.
Bence-Jones proteins are _______ tumor markers indicative of multiple myeloma.
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antibody tumor markers
What is the process of metastasis?
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Tumor breaks thru capillary bed, arteries or venules. Tumor clusters, cells or fragments enter the lymph or blood stream. Cells travel to new capillary bed of their organ of choice (tropism).
What are clinical manifestations of cancer?
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Pain; fatigue; weight loss; leukopenia; thrombocytopenia; infection; cachexia; paraneoplastic syndromes.
Radiation, UV light and drugs are all examples of ________ factors.
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Exogenous
  
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