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CancerMedical Surgical Nursing

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Question Answer
Malignant connective tissue tumors are called _______.
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sarcomas (ex. chondrosarcoma)
Malignant epithelial tumors are _______.
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carcinomas (ex. adenocarcinoma)
What decreased the risk of ovarian cancer?
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BC early in life; kids
What are tumor markers used for?
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screen and identify individuals at higher risk for cancer; help diagnose specific types of tumors; observe the clinical course of the cancer.
RAS and ERBB mutations are the most common _______ mutations.
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oncogene
Metastatic cells gain _______, have the ability to grow _______, undergo _______. They break adhesion with other cells and _______ extracellular matrix.
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immortality; unrestricted; angiogenesis; dissolve
What are the characteristics of breast cancer tumors?
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solitary; painless; firm; fixed; poorly defined borders
How are mutations in oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes different?
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Oncogenes: usually viral cause; dominant; 1 hit; RAS; ERBB (most common). Tumor Suppressor: can be hereditary; recessive; 2 hits; P53; APC (colon); BRCA 1; BRCA 2.
  
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