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Acid base imbalancesFundamentals of Nursing

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What are some causes of hypernatremia?
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Excess salt intake, hypertonic solution, excess aldosterone secretion, diabetes insipidus, increased sensible and insensible water loss, water deprivation
This ion is essential for enzyme activities, neurochemical activities, and cardiac and skeletal excitability. It is regulated by diet, renal mechanisms, and the parathyroid hormone.
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Magnesium (normal range is 1.5-2.5)
What are some causes of hypermagnesemia?
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Renal failure, excess intake
What are signs and symptoms of hypermagnesemia?
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Hypoactive deep tendon reflex, decreased depth and rate of respirations, hypotension, flushing, bradycardia, ECG changes, arrhythmias
What are signs and symptoms of fluid volume excess?
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Rapid weight gain, edema, HTN, polyuria, neck vein distention, crackles in lungs, confusion, decreased hematocrit and BUN
What are some causes of hyperosmolar dehydration?
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Diabetes inspisdus, hypothalamus injury, diabetic ketoacidosis, osmotic diuresis, administration of hypertonic formula
What are some common causes of isotonic fluid volumes excesses?
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CHF, renal failure, cirrhosis of the liver, increased serum aldosterone and steroids, excessive sodium intake
This ion is necessary for blood clotting, hormone secretion, cell membrane integrity, cardiac condustion, transmission of nerve impulses and muscle contraction.
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Calcium (normal range 4.5-5.5 serum; 8.5-10.5 total)
This ion is necessary for glycogen deposits in the liver and skeletal muscle, transmission nand conductions of nerve impulses, normal cardiac condustion and skeletal and smooth muscle contraction.
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Potassium (normal range is 3.5-5.0)
This ion is a major contributor to maintaining water balance, nerve impulse transmission, regulation of acid-base balance and it also participates in cellular chemical reactions.
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Sodium (normal range is 135-145)
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What are signs and symptoms of hypomagnesemia?
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Muscle tremors, hyperactive deep tendon reflex, confusion, tachycardia, HTN, dysrhythmias, positive Chvostek's and Trousseau's signs
What are some commom causes of hypomagnesemia?
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Decreased intake, alcohol, malnutrition, diarrhea, vomiting, NG drainage, small intestine disease, thiazide diuretics, aldosterone excess, polyuria
What are signs and sypmtoms of hyperkalemia?
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Anxiety, dysrhythmias, parathesia, weakness, abdominal cramps, diarrhea **peaked T wave**
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